Treating Material

Heat treatments and work hardening

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Annealing

 

Material heated and allowed to cool gradually. Large crystals form. Atoms able to reposition themselves. Material tougher and more ductile.

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Quenching

 

 

Material heated and cooled quickly in cold water. Small, regular crystals form due to large number of dislocations. Material is harder and more brittle.

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Tempering

Material is heated and quenched. Reheated and allowed to cool slowly. Retains strength and ductility.

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Work Hardening

 

 

Mechanical work carried out in a crystalline metal makes it harder. Repeated stress creates extra dislocatiions which get entangled and stop eachother moving. Material is less ductile.

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