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Reasons for global increase in tourism

People are having more holidays because

  • People have more disposable income so can can afford to go on more holidays
  • Companies give more paid holidays
  • Travel has become cheaper (particularly air) so more people can afford to go on holiday
  • Holiday providers (tour companies, hotels) use internet to sell products directly, which make them cheaper, so more people can afford to go on holiday

Some areas are becoming more popular than they used to be because

  • Transport has been improved so it's quicker and easier to get to places eg. channel tunnel built 1995 making it easier to get to Europe, more airports to get to places like Australia that used to be reached by boat
  • Countries in more unusual destinations like Africa and the Middle East have got better at markerting themselves, so people are more aware of them
  • Many countries have invested in infrastucture for tourism (eg. better hotels) to make them more attractive to visitors eg. African countries
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Potential of city, mountains and coastal areas for

Cities - London, New York, Paris, Rome

  • Culture - museums, galleries (Tate Modern, London; Le Louvre, Paris)
  • Entertainment - bars, restaurants, theatres (Broadway NY, West End London)
  •  Shopping (5th Avenue, New York)
  • Monuments (Statue of Libertym NY; Big Ben London; Coliseum, Rome; Eiffel Tower, Paris)

Mountains - the Alps, the Dolomites, the Rockies

  • Beautiful scenery (eg. Whistler, Canada - 3 glaciers, waterfalls and lakes)
  • Activities such as walking, climbing (Whistler), skiing and snowboarding (ski resort La Clusaz, the Alps; Whistler Blackcomb Ski School)

Coasts - Spain ,Caribbean, Thailand

  • Beaches (eg. Playa de Palma - Majorca, Spanish Island)
  •  Activities such as swimming, snorkelling, fishing, water skiing
  • Weather (30oC+ in Summer in Majorca)
  • Shopping and nightlife (Palma)
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Economic importance of tourism to contrasting part

  • Tourism Create jobs for local people (eg. in restaurants and hotels) which helps the economy to grow (direct jobs) Increases income of other businesses that supply the tourism industry (eg. farms that supply food to hotels).
  • This also helps the economy to grow and is an example of indirect jobs and the multiplier effect. This means tourism is important to countires in both rich and poor parts of them world
  • In 2006, tourism in France generated 35 billion euros and created 2 million jobs
  •  Poorer countries tend to be more dependant on tourism than richer ones, eg. tourism contributes 3% of the UK's GNP compared to 15% of Kenya's
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Contribution of tourism to the UK economy

  • Tourism is one of the largest industries in the UK
  • There were 32 million overseas visitors to Britain in 2008
  • The UK is popular with tourists due to countryside, historic landmarks (eg. Big Ben and Stonehenge), famous churches and cathedrals (eg. Edinburgh Castle and Buckingham Palace)
  • London is particularly popular for museums (Tate Modern), theatres (West End eg. the Lion King) and shopping (Oxford Street). It's the destination for half of all visitors to the UK.
  • In 2007, tourism contributed £114 billion to the economy and employed 1.4 million people
  • Tourism jobs forecast to increase between 2010 and 2020 from 2.65 million to 2.90 million, increasing by 250 000
  • 1/12 UK jobs either directly or indirectly supported by tourism
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Impact of external factors on visitor numbers to t

  • Weather - bad weather can discourage tourists from visiting the UK eg. really wet summer in 2007 was blamed for drop in overseas visitors
  • World economy - in times of recession people tend to cut back on luxuries like holidays, so fewer overseas visitors come to the UK. However, more UK citizens choose to holiday in the UK
  • Exhange rate - if it's low, the UK is cheaper to visit
  • Terrorism and conflict - wars and terrorist threats mean people are less willing to visit affected areas. Tourism fell sharply after London bombings on 7/7/2005
  • Major events - big events can attract huge numbers of people. Eg. Liverpool was European capital of culture in 2008 and as a result 3.5 million people visited who hadn't been before. The 2012 Olympics generated a total tourist spend of £18.6 billion
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Tourist area life cycle model

1. Exploration - Small numbers of visitors attracted to the area, eg. by scenery or culture. There aren't many tourist facilities.

2. Involvement - Local people start providing facilities for tourists which attracts more visitors.

3. Development - More and more visitors come as more facilities are built. Control of tourism in the area passes from locals to big companies.

4. Consolitdation - Tourism is still a big part of the local economy but tourist numbers are beginning to level off

5. Stagnation - Visitor numbers have peaked. Facilities are no longer as good and tourists have had a negative impact on the local environment, making the area less attractive to visit.

6. Rejuvenation eg. Brighton  - if the area is rejuvenated then more visitors will come as they're attracted by the new facilities OR decline eg. Morcambe - fewer visitors come as the area is less attractive. This leads to decline as facilities shut or become run down.

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Case Study: the Lake District National Park - reas

Around 15 million visitors a year

  • Tourists come to enjoy the scenery eg. large lakes (Windermere), mountains (Scafell Pike)
  • There are many activities available eg. bird watching (Leighton Moss), walking (White Moss, Coniston Old Man), pony trekking (Limefitt Park), boat rides (Brockhole), sailing (Windermere), rock-climbing (Indoor at Keswick Climbing Wall, outdoor at Scafell Crag), cycling (Grisedale Forest)
  • Cultural attractions eg. Wordsworth and Beatrix Potter museums, Dove Cottage, Castlerigg stone circle
  • Towns - Bowness, Windermere, Ulverston
  • Tea Shops
  • River cruises
  • Family activities - Brockhole Adventure Playground, Fellfoot, Go Ape!,
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Case Study: the Lake District National Park - effe

Tourists cause traffic congetion. erode footpaths and drop litter.

  • Coping with extra traffic - public transport in the area is being improved so people can leave their cars at home. There are also campaigns to encourage people to use the new services eg. 'Give the driver a break' campaign. This provides leaflets that show the routes available and offers discounts at cafes and on lake cruises for people presenting bus or train tickets.
  • Coping with foopath erosion - solutions include encouraging visitors to use less vulnerable areas instead, 'resting' popular routes by changing line of paths and using more hard wearing materials for paths eg. at Tarn Hows, severly eroded paths have been covered with soil and the main route has been gravelled to protect it.
  • Protecting wildlife and farmland - there are signs to remind visitors to take their litter home and covered bins are provided at the most popular sites. There have also been campaigns to encourage visitors to enjoy the countryside responsibly eg. by closing gates and keeping dogs on a lead
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Case Study: the Lake District National Park - plan

  • Cumbria's official tourism strategy is to attract an exra two million visitors by 2018 and increase the amount tourists spend from £1.1 billion per year to £1.5 billion per year
  • Public transport will be improved to make the Lakes more accessible
  • There's to be widespread advertising and marketing to make the area even more well known
  • Farms will be encouraged to provide activities like quad biking, clay pigeon shooting and archery alongside traditional farming to attract more tourists
  • Timeshare developments are to be increased to bring people into the area all year round
  • Strategy also aims to encourage tourism outside the National Park, like the West Coast, Furness and Carlisle to relieve some pressure on the main tourist areas. Eg. plans to regenerate Whitehaven and Barrow ports to make them more attractive
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Meaning of mass tourism and the positive and negat

Mass tourism is organised tourism for large numbers of people.


  • Money into local economy
  • Jobs for local people and industries that supply tourism eg. farming
  • A lot of profit kept by large travel companies rather than locals


  • Jobs mean young people stay in area
  • Improved infrastructure for tourists benefits locals
  • Income can be reinvested in community projects
  • Badly paid and seasonal
  • Traffic congestion
  • Behavior of tourists can offend locals


  • Money reinvested in environment eg. National Parks
  • Transporting lots of people long distances releases lots of greenhouse gases
  • Increased litter causes pollution
  • Excess sewage pollutes rivers
  • Destruction of natural habitats eg. boats destroying coral reef
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Ways to maintain the importance of mass tourism an

Negative impacts reduced by

  • Improving public transport reducing congestion and pollution
  • Limiting numbers of people visiting sensitive environments eg. coral reefs
  • Providing lots of bins to help reduce litter

Some areas rely heavily on tourism .Strategies to maintain importance of tourism so that tourists keep coming:

  • Build new facilities and improve existing ones eg. hotels
  • Reduce tourist impacts that make the area less attractive eg. litter and traffic congestion
  • Advertise and market to attract new tourists eg. TV to advertise in other countries
  • Improve transport infrastructure to make it quicker and easier to get to the area
  • Offer new activities to attract tourists who don't normally go there
  • Make it cheaper to visit eg. lower entrance fees to attractions
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Case Study: Tropical tourist destination, Kenya -

Kenya is in East Africa. It gets over 700 000 visitors per year.

Reasons why people visit:

  • Tribal culture and wildlife including 'Big 5' (rhino, lion, elephant, buffalo, leopard)
  • Warm climate with sunshine all year round and little rain (temperatures up to 28oC, 1000mm average annual rainfall)
  • Beautiful scenery including savannah (Masai Mara), mountains (Mount Kenya with snow on top), forests (Mount Kenya Forest), beaches (Mombasa) and coral reefs (Malindi Marine)
  • Activities such as climbing, walking, surfing, safaris, diving, colourful bazaars and bird watching (Pink Flamingos)
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Case Study: Tropical tourist destination, Kenya -


  • Tourism 15% of Kenya's GNP. In 2007, tourist numbers were at record high of 1.8 million
  • In 2007, around 250 000 in direct tourism imployment, and a further 250 000 employed indirectly in tourism related business. Each full time worker supports on average 7-12 people. The average Kenyan earns US $500 per year
  • Only 15% of money earned through tourism goes to locals. The rest goes to big companies.


  • Culture and customs of native Maasai tribe preserved because things like traditional dancing are displayed to tourists
  • Some Maasai tribespeople were forced off their land to creat National Parks for tourists
  • Some Muslim people in Kenya are offended by the way female tourists dress


  • 23 National Parks eg. Nairobi. Entrance fees help maintain parks and protect environment and wildlife
  • Safari vehicles destroy vegetation and cause soil erosion
  • Wild animals affected eg. cheetahs forced to change hunting behaviour to avoid crowds
  • Coral reefs in Malindi Marine National Park destroyed by tourist boats
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Case Study: Tropical tourist destination, Kenya -

Negative impacts are reduced

  • Walking or horseback tours promoted over vehicle safaris to preserve vegetation
  • Alternative activities that are less damaging than safaris encouraged eg. climbing and white water rafting

Maintaining tourism

  • Kenya's Ministry of Tourism have launched an advertising campaign in Russia called 'Magical Kenya'
  • Kenya's Wildlife Service planning to build airstrips in Ruma National Park and Mount Elgon National Park to make the area more accessible for tourists. Also plans to spend £8 million improving roads, bridges and airstrips
  • Visa fees for adults cut by 50% in 2009 and were scrapped for children under 16 to make it cheaper to visit and encourage families
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Why extreme environments are popular with tourists

Reasons why tourisits are attracted to extreme environments:

  • Ideal settings for adventure holidays like jeep tours, rafting and trekking
  • Some wildlife can only be seen in these areas eg. polar bears in the Arctic
  • Some scenery can only be seen in extreme places eg. icebergs in very cold environments

Toruism in extreme environments is increasing:

  • Improvements in transport have made it quicker and easiereg. the Qinghai-Tibet railway links China and Tibet opened in 2006
  • People are keen to see places like Antarctica before global warming cause them to melt
  • More disposable income
  • Adventure holidays more popular due to TV and advertising
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Impact of tourism on extreme environments

Ecosystems in extreme environments are often delicately balanced because it's so hard for life to survive in the harsh conditions. Tourists can upset the fragile environment and cause serious problems.

  • Trees cut down to provide fuel, leading to deforestation which destroys habitats, increases flooding (no inteception) and leads to soil erosion
  • Footpath erosion can lead to landslides
  • Rivers become polluted by sewage as toilets are poor or non existent
  • Things like oil spills could pollute environemnt
  • Tourists can introduce diseases or new species, wiping out others
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Case Study: fragile environment, Antarctica, why i

Antarctica is the coldest place on Earth (can get to -80oC). It is a continent at the South Pole, has an area of about 14 million Km2 and about 98% is covered with ice. Number of tourists is rising eg. 7412 in 1996/7, 46000 in 2007/8


  • Tourists can trample plants, disturb wildlife and drop litter
  • Tourists could accidently introduce non-native species or diseases that could wipe out existing species.
  • Spillage of fuel from ships eg. sinking of MV Explorer in 2007. Fuel spills kills sea creatures eg. muscles and fish as well as birds that feed on them eg. penguins
  • Sewage from ships can pollute environment
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Case Study: fragile environment, Antarctica, metho

  • Antarctic treaty - international agreement that came to force in 1961 and how now been signed by 47 countries. The parties involved introduced new limits on tourism. Only ships with fewer than 500 passengers allowed to land and a minimum of 100 passengers to shore at a time.

IAATO has a separate code of conduct. It's voluntary but most tour operators stick to it. The rules are:

  • Specially protected areas are off limit to tourists
  • Wildlife must not be disturbed when being observed eg. whale watching boats should approach animals slowly and keep their distance
  • No litter can be left behind and there must be no smoking during landings (to reduce cigarette end litter)
  • Tourists must stay with their group and each group must have a qualified guide. This prevents people entering no-go areas
  • Tourists must not walk on fragile plant life
  • Sewage must be treated biologically and other waste stored on board the ships
  • Scientists must be free to research
  • No nuclear waste disposal allowed
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Ecotourism - what it is and the need for conservat

Ecotourism doesn't harm the environment and benefits local people. It involves:

  • Conservation - protecting and managing the environment
  • Stewardship - taking responsibility for managing the environment

Conservation and stewardship should involve local people and organisations so locals benefit from tourism

Usually a smale scale activity with only small numbers of visitors, helping keep the environmental impact low. Usually includes activities such as wildlife viewing and walking.

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Benefits of ecotourism for the environment, econom


  • Local people encouraged to conserve environment eg. not logging, because they can only earn money from ecotourism if it isn't damaged
  • Reduces poaching of endangered species since people will benefit more from tourism than if they killed them
  • Reduce use of fossil fuels eg. by using renewable energy sources and local food, reducing global warming
  • Waste from tourists disposed of carefully to prevent pollution


  • Jobs for locals eg. as guides or in lodges, helping local economy grow
  • People not directly involved in tourism can earn money eg. selling crafts to tourists or supplying industry with food

Local people

  • More stable incomes from tourism than from other jobs eg. farming
  • Many ecotousism schemes fund community projects eg. schools, water tanks, health centres
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How tourism helps sustainable development of areas

Sustainable development means improving the quality of life for people but doing it in a way that doesn't stop people in the future getting what they need (not damaging environment or depleting resources)

Ecotourism helps areas develop by using profits to build schools or healthcare facilities, improving quality of life for locals

It's sustainable because it doesn't damage the environment. Without ecotourism people may have to make a living by damaging the environment eg. cutting down trees

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Case study: ecotourism, Tataquara Lodge, Para, Bra

Tataquara Lodge is on an island in the Xingu River in the Brazillian state of Para.

It's owned and operated by cooperative of six local tribes.

It has 15 rooms and offers activities like fishing, canoeing, wildlife viewing and forest walks

Surrounding rainforest home to rich variety of wildlife including many species of bat and tropical birds. There are also endangered species eg. the harpy eagle and giant river otter

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Case study: ecotourism, Tataquara Lodge, Para, Bra


  • Built from local materials such as straw and wood found on the ground so trees didn't have to be cut down. These materials blend with environment so not spoiled.
  • Uses solar power to run lights rather than burning fossil fuels
  • Food is all locally produced so less fossil fuels are used to transport  it


  • Owned by cooperative of tribes, not big company, so income goes straight to local economy
  • Loaclly-produced food means more money goes to local economy

Local people:

  • Creates jobs for locals
  • People in nearby villages encouraged to visit lodge to sell crafts and perform traditional songs and dances which gives them an income and preserves culture
  • Profits used to provide decent healthcare and education for thousands of people from local tribes

Profits impove healthcare and education and therefore quality of life. Development is sustainable because it doesn't damage environment. People don't need to log. Resources aren't used up eg. solar power is used, so more available for future generations.

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soo good notes

Mr A Gibson

What is tourism? What affects where it happens? Examples? Case Studies? Facts and figures? Detail? Check... all these are within these 24 cards that would be good printed off or on your mobile device.


Are these for AQA A or B?

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