• Created by: Arjiv J
  • Created on: 17-03-16 10:37

Intro and Reasons for Growth

Tourism - Activity involving travel and temporary stay away from the home environment for at least one night

  • Tourism in Europe said to grow vastly
  • Tertiary industry - provides a service for tourists

Reasons for growth

  • More affluence - People have more disposable income/ paid time of work for holidays
  • Greater awareness - Advertising/television programmes 
  • More car ownership - Gives greater freedom
  • Improvements in Technology - quicker travelling, Motorway, Travel by air = more accessible, choose more budget options - long haul destinations relatively cheap
  • More leisure time - paid holidays from work, retired remain active for longer, trend to take more than one holiday/yr
  • More choice - People look towards new, unusual holiday destinations
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Multiplier Effect, Leakage, Pleasure Periphery and

Multiplier Effect - money spent in one area can filter through to local economy


  • Hotel spends $$$ to import goods
  • When local producers cannot produce reliable/continuous supply of required product
  • No consistent quality; cannot meet demand
  • Hotels pay extra to gain services from out of their area
  • Money lost to country's economy

Pleasure Periphery - concept demonstrates how tourism has become more widespread > Larger disposable income = more exotic locations

The Butler Model 

Butler's tourism life cycle



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Role of Technology + Aviation>Climate Change!

Technology plays huge role in growth of Tourism

  • Communications
  • Booking
  • Internet - Booking holidays, Advertising>targeted market 'cookies', large variety, cheap deals fast, trustworthy
  • - Aesthetically appealing, Images and Videos shows culture/activities, Easy to book, package holidays
  • Transport - Distance, Frequency

Effects on environment by Aviation:

  • 3.5% GHGs due to aircraft > 2040: Could be 15%
  • Pollutants [email protected] altitude greater effect - Aircraft vapour trails seen from ground = cirrus clouds > increase global warming effect
  • Improvements in aircraft technology will not stop increase in airplane pollution
  • Ozone layer of GHGs
  • 1 flight can produce more CO2 than average UK motorist in a year
  • 16000 commercial aircrafts = 600 mil tonnes of CO2/ year - more than produced by whole population of Africa
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Development Gap & Human Development Index!

Development Gap: Exists between LEDCs and MEDCs. The difference between the economic development of the world's richest and poorest countries.


  • Greater natural resources
  • Natural hazards inhibit development
  • Lack of infrastructure and technology
  • Poor education
  • Poor health of population
  • Conflict

Human Development IndexA social welfare index based upon life expectancy (health), adult literacy, number of years of schooling (education) & GNI per capita (economic) - combination of indicators make it more robust 


  • No ecological consideration
  • Doesn't look at changes within a country?Can incomes different countries be comparable?


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Thomas Cook!

  • 9.5 billion turn-in 2011
  • 23 million customers worldwide
  • 86 aircrafts
  • 6500 employees
  • Tourism TNC - spreads business to place with promising future - possible profit
  • Grown grealty after use of internet > website
  • 1845 - simple travel agrency > train trip from Liverpool to Leicester
  • Now = well know Transnational Corporation
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Kenya Case Study - Environmental Impacts of Touris


  • Without tourism to pay = no parks to protect animals
  • Animals eat waste - scavenge --> depend on humans
  • Rising awareness of animal/marine parks = helps protect wildlife/scenery -> develop facilities e.g. Bamburi Nature Trail near Mombasa


  • Marine parks --> Touch kills coral= fragile --> Over-crowding boat anchors hit coral --> 20/30 boats --> Removes coral - 1404/yr - coral taken as souvenirs --> pressure on resources = water
  • Hotels eye sore on coast --> Most don't follow limited height 4 buildings law - mitigation efforts slowed by corruption 
  • Hot air balloons in parks disturb animals --> overcrowding of game parks - 90% visit SE
  • Animals scavenge due to their prey migrating due to tourism - 20/30 buses around each animal affects eating/mating --> Disturbing tour buses - cheetar/lion birth rate declines --> animals driven out of habitats
  • 200 vehicles - 700 passengers = big fire --> Not enough park rangers to enforce 25-mile limit
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Kenya Case Study - Economical Impacts of Tourism


  • Provides jobs - 11% paid employment comes from this --> Major source of income into Kenyan economy - 21% of foreign exchange earnings -> money used for development of local schools/healthcare
  • Just under 1 mil tourists from Germany/UK/USA provides market for local goods 
  • $20 to see 'traditional' tribe dance = 'trinket' selling tourist dance - Luxury lodge - £1500/day
  • Helps improve other related industries and infrastructure


  • Masai no longer able to farm
  • 35% below poverty line
  • Poor to get poorer - loss of traditional farming land
  • Poorly paid, unreliable, seasonal employment in menial jobs
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Kenya Case Study - Social Impacts of Tourism


  • Promotes understanding of culture
  • Money used to provide local schools/healthcare


  • Selling their 'soul' to the tourist dollar
  • Drugs, alcohol, pollution, prostitution
  • Mombasa Islam/Swahili People - clashes with wester dress codes
  • Hotels built in wildlands
  • Food - no longer asking locals - leakage
  • Barely any money earned goes to citizens
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Decline of Tourism in Kenya

  • Stagnation --> terrorism. 2012 riots in Mombasa/2013 shootings in Westgate
  • Total no. visitors halved in 1998 after civil unreset in 1997.
  • 2003: UK advised citizens not to travel there/British Airways suspended flights 
  • Poor planning in 1970s-90s=congestion in honey pot areas.
  • Souvenirs made cheaply by Asian companies


  • $500 mil industry losing $1m/day.
  • 70% decline in monthly income --> crime.
  • Fewer taxes collected=decline of basic infrastructure --> further reduce tourism
  • Debt accumulation --> Increased family feuds and arguments
  • Belongings sold to meet immediate financial issues
  • People moving out of tourism
  • Need China to step in and help - 'Neocolonialism'
  • People migrating to urban areas -->Over-crowding-->Unemployment=not enough jobs
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Blackpool Case Study - Decline

Basic Facts

  • NW coast of England
  • Was fishing village - rail network came --> changed town
  • 17 mil/yr from 1945 onwards

Reasons for Decline

  • Beach/sea pollution
  • Families frightened off --> Binge drinking culture of 'stag nights'/'hen parties'
  • Overcrowding/traffic jams on bank holidays

Evidence of Decline between 1990-1999

  • 1000 hotels ceased trading
  • 300 holiday-flat premises closed
  • Visitors dropped from 17 to 11 million
  • Average hotel occupancy rate fell as low as 25%
  • B&B charging £10 a night
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Blackpool Case Study - Rejuvenation

Strategies for Solution

  • Trying to rebrand themselves
  • Possibility of building a super casino
  • Pulling down old buildings/landscaping car parks
  • Smarten up areas run-down/look unpleasant to tourists
  • Beaches have been cleaned up/beach facilities improved


  • Super casino went to Manchester 
  • Hotal accommodations remain below 25%
  • Attractions have not changed/limited by its size
  • Relies on day trippers/people who stay for few nights
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Majorca Case Study - Environmental/Economic Impact

Basic Facts: 

  • Largest of the four Balearic Islands
  • Population of 700k yet 11 mil go to visit
  • In 40 yrs isle has gained modern infrastructure= high speed internet/excellent public transport
  • Excellent travel connections to Europe

Environmental Impact

  • Beaches losing sand due to many visitors --> costs government lots to replenish beaches
  • Too many tourists = too much pollution/litter -->Majorca has the highest rate of cars per person in Europe 
  • High rise hotels-->low rise villas so more spread out/less space
  • Last year water had to be brought in from Spain due to Lack of water on island

Economic impact

  • Tourism = 85% of GNP however ruined farming industry which was 2% of GNP
  • Island over dependent on tourism
  • Island transformed from poorest-->richest Spanish island
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Majorca Case Study - Cultural Impact/Sustainable T

Cultural Impact:

  • Foreign tourists would like to get close with isle's culture > Very vibrant culture/own dialect
  • Fears that culture will die of --> Majorca will be more foreign than Spanis
  • Germans keenest buyers of second home --> 30% of houses there owned by them
  • Locals act hostile to residents --> holiday homes expensive/everywhere --> locals can't afford to buy it themselves and cannot "start a family"

Sustainable Tourism:

  • Agrotourism - combines tourisms and farming --> allows tourists to stay in farms
  • Allows tourists to integrate with local culture
  • Mayor going to create more green space/replenish drinking water by controlling tourist no.
  • Government also planning to have Eco tax on tourists
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Machu Piccu Case Study

Basic Facts:

  • Andes Mountains - Peru
  • World Heritage Site
  • Inca Trail - Glaciers, Forests, River Valleys
  • Year 1992: 5000 people --> Year 2000: 82000 people

Positive Impacts

  • Social - Villagers employed as porters
  • Economic - Sunday market @ Pisac - locally made produce/ US $12/day for porters 
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Machu Piccu Case Study - Direct Concerns of Touris

  • Management of Garbage is bad

Garbage thrown into rivers, such as Urubamba or left close to trail. Includes human excreta. Rubbish bins along the trail are picked up by park wardens and simply dumped, usually in an open pit 50m from trai.

  • Erosion

2000 people visit Machu Piccu citadel everyday. 6% increase in visitors a year. Site slowly being eroded by erosion. Trail being eroded/ tea bags and water bottles littered everywhere

  • Wildlife Disturbed

Disappearance of rare species of orchid/Andean Condor from area due to low flying helicopters – low flying tours -> allowed by government. Ruins peaceful nature of ruins/wildlife surrounding them. Animals must migrateTimber cut along the trail for fuel also disturbs wildlife = fuel for cooking. Caused forest fires in the vicinity/threatened Machu Picchu on several occasions.

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Machu Piccu Case Study - Indirect Concerns and Man

Indirect Concerns

  • Eye sore: Toilet blocks @ Machu Picchu have red roofs/ stand out distinctly against ancient ruins
  • Rise in crime, especially @ tourist trains. People robbed whilst sleeping/ pickpockets operate in all major towns

Managing the Trail

  • Tour operators must be licensed
  • Porters limited to 20kg loads
  • Maximum 500/day on trail
  • Entrance fee US $50
  • No plastic water bottles only canteens
  • No littering
  • Groups >10 independent travelers + must have licensed guide
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Costa Rica Case Study : Eco Tourism

  • Sustainable - for environment, no leakage as food/employment from local people, alternative to negative impacts of mass tourism


  • 7 Active Volcanoes - on Cocos & Caribbean Plates
  • Coral Reefs
  • Constant Temperature = Mid 20s
  • 20% of place National Park = protected status


  • 2002 - 1.1 bil visitors
  • US $1.1 bil/ 140k jobs
  • 17% of GDP - money reinvested in education/healthcare
  • Growth rate 5%/yr
  • Land owners view their land as a long term asset worth looking after – conserving with sustainable management
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