topic 2 libf


Types of employment- Full-time working

Full-time work means working for the whole working day and week, all year except for paid holidays. For offices and shops, this is often:

- 9am to 5pm

-with one hour off for lunch

- for five or six days a week

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Types of employment Part-time working

People who work part-time do so for part of the working day, week or year. They might, for example, work for:

- a few working hours each day

- a few days in a working week

- several months in a year

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Types of employment Shifts

Some employers are open for more than eight hours a day, such as supermarkets, hotels and restaurants. The may even be open 24 hours a day - think of police and hospitals. They need staff for all hours they are open, so their employees (whether part-time or full time) work in 'shifts'. The working. The working day is divided into different time periods. Each period is one 'shift'.  

staff work in three eight-hour shifts:

- 10am to 6pm

- 6pm to 2am

- 2am to 10am

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Types of employment workers rights

Full-time and part-time workers have the same legal rights. The employment contract agreed between an employee and employer must state whether the employee is full-time or part-time.

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Types of employment Self-employed

Self-employed people can choose to work part-time if they wish

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Types of employment Zero-hours contract

A zero-hours contract means the emploter does not have to provide any minimum working hours, and the worker does not have to eccept any work offered. The employee can leave at any time.

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Goverment Benifits - Educaition Maintenance allowa

EMA is a weekly payment of between £10 and £30 a week, available to students over the age of 16 in full-timer education in northern Ireland, scotland or wales.

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Goverment Benifits - Jobseeker's allowance (JSA)

People who are not workin g might get benifit payments from the goverment. The main benifit for the unemployed is JSA. The amount paid dements on the claimant's age. To get JSA, you must be:

- available for and actively seeking work

- between  18 years old and state pension age

-working less than 16 hours a week on average

You also need to attend an interview at the jobcentre, where you set out the steps yu will need to find work. To keep getting the benifit, you have to attend regular  job search reviews.

- Contibustion- based JSA is paid to claimants who have maid a sufficient amount of natonal insurance contrubutions (NICs) to qualify.

- Income-based JSA is for those who have not maid enough NICs.

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Goverment Benifits - Income Support

Income support may be paid if you are:

- aged 18 or over

- cannot be available for full-time work

-do noy have enough money to live on

You can work up to 16 hours a week and still claim Income support. You won't get anything if you have a certain amount of savings, which the goverment expects youy to spend first.How much income support you recieve depends on your situation, such as whether you are:

- a single parent

- caring for someone who is sick or elderly

- pregnant or a new mother

people who recieve income suport may also get financial help with their rent and council tax.

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Goverment Benifits - Employment and support allowa

ESA is paid to people who are disabled or ill and connot work. After 13 weeks, the claimant is assessed to see whether yhey can do any kind of work.if you have an illness or disability that greatly affects your ability to work, you recieve increased financial support and do not have to prepare to return to work. Claimants are offered personal support via a personal adviser and a wide range of furver services, incliding training, support and help finding suitable meployment if they are able to work.

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Goverment Benifits - Universal Credit

By 2022, JSA and some other benefits will have been replaced by Universal Credit. Wheather or not a person recieves Universal credit depends on their financial situation. The uooer age limit is state pension age. Universal Credit is for peoplewhatever their employment status. This means they won't need to transfer between different benifits as they move in and out of work.

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Goverment Benifits - Child benifit

Child Benifit is a payment you can claim for your child if they are under the age of 16, or under 20 and in full-time education or aproved training. The amount paid depends on how many children you have.

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Pension income - basic state pension

The basic state pension is paid to you by the goverment when you reach state pension age. It is based on the number of 'qualifying years' gained though paying NICs. People retiring after 6 april 2016 receive a flat-rate pension per week. Only individuals who have paid required NICs for 35 years to get the full amount. Anyone with under 10 years NICs will not recieve any state pension. Carers (who look after others so do not work) will be credited with NICs. 

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Pension income - Auto-enrolment and NEST

The state pensiom is not large, so people are advised to join a workplace pension scheme too. In 2009, only half of UK rmployees were members of their employer's pension scheme. Since october 2012, employers have had to offer a pension scheme to theif employees. All workers who earn above a certain yearly amount are automaticallhy enrolled into that scheme, although the employee can choose to opt out. The employer and employee both contribute to the scheme during the employee's working life. Employers who had no scheme could either set one up or enroll their employees into the goverment's National Employement Savings Trust (NEST).

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Investment Income

If a person has a large sum of money (usually thousands) that they want to put away for a long time, this is an 'investment'. Because the invester puts away the money for a long time, they have a wide range if choices:

- They can but shares in a company, so that theyown a tiny part of it. If it makes a profit, tat profit is paid to them. This income is called dividends

- They can buy propertu and rent it out. tgis income is called rent

- They can put it in a bank or Building society account. Because the investment is large, the investor will earn much more than someone who only saves a small amount. This income is called interest

Investment income can be an important source of money, such as thise who are retired and no longer have a wage or salary.

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When people die, their money and possesions are given to other people who 'inherit' them. A will is is a document written by an individual(the 'testator') that gives instructions about what should happen to the things they oen after they die. They must sign the will in front of two witnesses, who then also sign the will. People often name two or more executors so if one dies, there is someone elso to carry out th deceased's wishes.

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Inheritance - inheritance tax (IHT)

When someone dies, before following the instructions in the will there may be IHT to pay the goverment. IHT is ony owed if the estate totals above a certain amount.

The IHT threshold amount above which is payable. If the value of a person's estate amounts to less than the IHT threshold, there is no IHT to pay.

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Inheritance - Intestacy

If someone does not leave a wil, they have died 'intestate'. The goverment has laws about how an estate should be givin out if there is no will. To avoid intestacy, you should make a will when you build up possessions. For example .....

under the laws on Intestacy, partners who are not married or in a civil partnership can't inherit.

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Good source to go over knowledge, but some spelling mistakes inside:)

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