topic 1 section 1

  • Created by: sausage
  • Created on: 23-09-21 09:14

topic 1 section 1

  • 1.1. infectious disease are transmittable directly and indirectly. 
  • 1.1. non communicable diseases are not transmittable. some have infectious parts (Hepititis and liver disease.
  • 1.1 injuries are caused by physical damage sometimes from violence
  • 1.2 symptoms are only exerpienced by the ill, subjective.
  • 1.2 signs of disease are observable. Objective.
  • 1.2 symptoms and signs of disease can contribute to find a diagnosis which gives a name to the illness
  • 1.2 acute conditions are quick onset and quick to kill or treat. chronic conditions take a long time to peak in serverity and recovery may also take a long time e.g TB takes months to treat
  • 1.3 pathogens are the infectious agents which infectious diseases are spread
  • 1.4hosts are the individuals which have pathogens multiplying in/on them
  • 1.4 direct person-to-person transmission, contagious infection (touch,cut, hand to mouth). STI (different types of unprotected sex). Mother-to-child (uterus, labour, breast milk)
  • 1.4 indirect person-to-person transmission (host shed pathogens into environment). Airborne (cough sneeze, aerosol containing pathogens) Waterborne common where water is not clean/ lack of sanitation (urine, faeces wash into water sources multiply and reinfect via drinking/bathing) naturally occuring pathogens also in water. Faecal-oral caused by flies, unclean hands, contamination of utensils. Foodborne (raw meat, eggs, salad leaves). Bloodborne (needles, blood transfusion)
  • 1.4 fomites, non-living objects that can transfer pathogens/infections such as clothes, utensils.
  • 1.4 animal-human transmission- zoonoses (infectious diseases from vertebrates), vectors (infectious diseases from invertebrates to complete their life cycle).
  • 1.4 World Health Organisation, part of the United Nations, coordinates health practice on international level. 
  • 1.5 antibiotics were rapidly developed during the 50s and 60s, significantly reducing bacterial infection deaths. mass vaccination in 50s and 60s protected from polio, whooping cough, tetanus, diphtheria in children.
  • 1.5 Emerging infectious diseases: 1. new infectious diseases by unknown pathogens e.g. AIDS caused by HIV ( orginated in monkeys) , SARS (poultry), MERS (camels), influenza (bird flu and swine flu). many seem to be zoonotic viruses. 2. infectious diseases outside their original geographical range (ebola) the virus is usually in West African villages, cases were reported in captial of Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Nigeria, Mali, Senegal and USA in 2014. 3. Resurging infectious diseases (TB) due to antibiotic resistance and in populations with suppressed immune systems (HIV). Also hospital super bugs e.g. MRSA
  • 1.5 article notes- EIDS cause billions in damages globally, currently increasing. Doctors, vets, farmers, economies, traders are most affected by EIDs. Slow identification of the disease reduces the efficacy of preventing it spreading. around 2/3 EIDs in past 60 years are zoonotic pathogens, 70% from wild animals. meat demand and animal products, drugs and vaccines are unregulated risk more EIDs occuring.
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