The End of the War

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The Yalta Conference February 1945

  • Churchill (Britain), Rosevelt (America) and Stalin (USSR) attended the conference to  approve the plans for occupation and administration of post-war Germany.
  • Four zones of occupation were agreed, one for the USSR, one for France, one for Britain and one for America.
  • It was also agreed that within the zones, the occupying countries should srtive to acheive the four D's, Demiliterisation, Denazification, Democritisation and Decartilisation.
  • Stalin seemed to accept the possibilty of a neutral and disarmed Germany.
  • However, there were major differences on what to do about reparations. Stalin wanted a large monetary reparation in addition to 80% of all Germany factories.
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Potsdam Conference August 1945

  • France did not attend, and Churchill had been replaced by Atlee. This caused problems as Churchill had acted as a mediator at the Yalta Conference.
  • The allies agreed that Germany should owe $20 billion, but disagreed on how or when that sum should be paid. It was eventually decided that each occupying power should take reparations from their own zones
  • The principle of the four ds were reaffirmed and it was agreed that they should work towards a unified and decentrilsed Germany.
  • Each zone adopted different political and social systems.
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The Nuremberg Trials November 1945

  • 8th August 1945 it was decided to try the leading Nazi war criminals before the International Military Tribunal.
  • 13 trials, 21 of the most prominent leaders were interogated and new evidence and documentation were found.
  • There were four groups of criminals, Military, Party men, Civil servants and Mass murderers.
  • There were four courts. One tried crimes against peace, another against war crimes, another against humanity and the last against conspiracy.
  • All of the defendants pleaded not guilty
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