What were 4 background features of Russia before t
Slow communication -- railways, roads
Russification -- 6/10 people didn't speak Russian
Extremes between the rich and poor
Describe the beliefs of the following opposing gro
Social Democrats -- wanted Communism
The Liberals -- wanted Democracy
Bolsheviks -- wanted a select group of revolutionaries to seize power on behalf of the workers
Mensheviks -- were similar to the Bolsheviks but wanted mass membership
The Social Revolutionaries -- wanted to seize land for the peasants and used violence and terror to achieve this
What year did Nicolas II become Tsar?
Name and describe the causes of the 1905 Revolutio
Poor harvest -- famine
The War with Japan -- many defeats, showed the government to be weak and incompetent, food shortages caused by war
Bloody Sunday -- peaceful demonstration at the Winter Palace, massacre killed 500 people, undermined the Tsar in the eyes of the people
What event took place in January 1905?
What was included in the October Manifesto?
Freedom of speech
Allowance of Political parties
Introduction of the Duma
What was the problem with the Duma?
The voting was rigged
The Duma was fundamentally controlled by the Tsar
When were the Fundamental Laws passed by the Tsar?
What was included in the Fundamental Laws?
That the Tsar would remain an autocratic leader
The Duma had no say in most areas of the government
Duma reforms could be dismissed by the Tsar
How was the remaining opposition to the Tsar in 19
It was crushed in towns and the countryside by the Tsar's forces
Who was Rasputin?
A peasant holy man
He cured the Tsar's haemophiliac son, Alexis
He was a trusted member of the court
He was Alexandra's confidant
Why did the public not like Rasputin? Name 3 thing
He was a womaniser
Rumour said that he was having an affair with Alexandra
Why did the 1905 Revolution fail?
The army that had been released from Japan supported the Tsar
The Octoberists believed the Tsar when he released the Manifesto
The forces were uncoordinated
What were 3 reasons for the revolution in 1917?
There were food shortages causing unrest amongst the people
The Petrograd Garrison turned against the Tsar
The Duma was ineffective
On what date did the Tsar abdicate?
March 15, 1917
Who was the Provisional Government lead by?
What 3 things did the Provisional Government promi
To make Russia a democracy and organise a constituent assembly for voting
Land was to be given to the peasants
To consider Russia's role in WWI
What 6 problems faced the Provisional Government?
Peasants had already started taking land
Soldiers were deserting Russia in the war
The P.G. had not been elected and so did not represent the people
Satellite states wanted independance
Soldiers and workers set up Soviets to represent their ideas
People wanted an immediate end to the food shortages and famine
What are the differences between the Provisional G
The P.G. was supported by the middle class and the peasants and temporarily controlled the whole of Russia.
The Petrograd Soviet was supported by the workers and soldiers of Petrograd, but only controlled Petrograd
What was 1 law made by the Petrograd Soviet?
That the army must follow the Provisional Government laws unless they contradicted Petrograd Soviet laws
What 7 reforms did the Provisional Government make
Freedom of speech
Recognition of trade unions
Introduction to an 8-hour working day
Amnesty for political prisoners
Freedom of religion
Promise of elected government
The abolishment of the Tsar's secret police, the Ohkrana
When did Lenin return and why?
Germany sent Lenin, the leader of the Bolsheviks, back to Russia to end the war
When did Russia resign from the war?
What was the Red Guard and when was it formed?
The Red Guard, the Bolshevik army/forces, was formed.
What were the events of the July Days?
The Bolsheviks and the soldiers tried to overthrow the Provisional Government
Kerensky sent local troops to quash the rebels
What were the outcomes of the July Days?
The Bolsheviks were either arrested or went into hiding. Lenin fled to Finland and the others were accused of being German spies by the Provisional Government
The Bolshevik newspaper, Pravda, was closed down
When did the Kornilov Revolt occur?
What were the events of the Kornilov Revolt?
General Kornilov threatened to seize power of Petrograd
Kerensky asked the Bolsheviks to persuade many troops to desert
What were the 2 outcomes of the Kornilov Revolt?
Kerensky and the Provisional Government were made to look weak
The Bolsheviks, comparatively, looked strong -- they were in control of both the Petrograd and Moscow Soviets
What date did Lenin return (for the second time) t
7th October 1917
What happened on the 10th October, 1917?
The Bolshevik Central Committee agreed on the uprising
Who lead the 1917 Revolution?
What date did the Bolsheviks overthrow the Provisi
October 24, 1917
How did the Bolsheviks prepare for the overthrowin
The Bolsheviks were in control of the telegraph offices and train stations
There were roadblocks surrounding the Winter Palace
What were the events of the Bolshevik Overthrow?
The Red Guard surrounded the Winter Palace
Kerensky tried to raise troops from the Front
The Provisional Government troops surrendered
The Provisional Government were placed under arrest.
What were the consequences of the Bolshevik takeov
6 soldiers died
There were 18 arrests
The Provisional Government collapsed
What 3 main reasons caused the Bolsheviks to be su
The Provisional Government was weak and only temporary
The Bolsheviks controlled the Petrograd Garrison
The Bolsheviks were the only political party who wanted an end to the war, and so the people supported them
What 4 decrees did Lenin pass immediately after th
Capital punishment was to be abolished
Power to the local Soviets
All nations were called upon to negotiate peace
Land was given from the Tsar, church and landowners to the peasants
What date was the first constituent assembly after
12th November, 1917
The Social Revolutionaries
What was the date of the second Constituent Assemb
5th January, 1918
The Bolsheviks won because the election was rigged
What groups did the Reds and Whites consist of?
Reds -- Bolsheviks
Whites -- many groups
What date did Trotsky start building the Red Army?
January 18, 1918
When and why was the capital moved the Moscow?
March 1918 because the transportation was better
What happened in October 1919?
The Whites advanced on Petrograd and Trotsky sent a counterattack
How did the West Allies support the Whites in the
November 1919 they stopped supporting the Whites with supplies and men
Who won the Civil War? Where and when?
The Reds won the civil war in Crimea in April 1920, though some white groups kept fighting into 1921
In what 3 ways did the Bolsheviks respond to the p
The number of Red Army troops in between 1917 and January 1918 was trippled
The political opposition was clamped down on by the Cheka
War communism was introduced (food was taken from the peasants and distributed by the government)
What 7 reasons caused the Reds to win the Civil Wa
War Communism was efficient
The Cheka made open resistance to the state difficult and dangerous
Trotsky was a strong leader
The Reds had good transportation from Moscow
The Whites were uncoordinated
The Whites conscripted unwilling peasants
The Whites treated the troops badly
What were the effects of War Communism?
By 1920 the Peasants produced 37% of the crops in 1913
Inflation caused money to be worthless
Other than food what were 3 more features of War C
Industry only made things for war
The government controlled banks, money and prices
Rights were cut back on
When did the Bolsheviks change their name and what
The Bolsheviks became the Communist Party in 1918
What 4 things did people receive under The Communi
The right to free speech
Free medical care
What 4 disadvantages were there to being under the
There were high levels of State Control
They suppressed Workers' committees
Execution was used for control over the country and the army
The Checka was used to control political opposition
In the Civil War, who did the Greens consist of?
Peasant armies (deserters) who wanted to protect their local area
Bandits who raided and looted
When did the Kronstadt Rebellion take place?
What were the events of the Kronstadt Rebellion
Sailors at the Kronstadt Naval Base objected to War Communism and set up The Workers Opposition Group
The Red Army moved in on the Base
20,000 people were killed
Surivers were tortured by the Cheka and sent to labour camps
What were the 3 features of Lenin's New Economic P
Money was re-introduced -- there was new coinage and a state bank
Confiscation of crops was stopped, but peasants had to pay tax on crops
Factories with less than 20 people could be privately owned and make profit
What were 3 effects of Lenin's New Economic Policy
There were 20% more crops
There were twice as many people who owned animals
90% as opposed to 1% of cotton mills were in working order
What date did Lenin die?
21st January 1924
What was the name of the Tsar's secret police?
How many men left the countryside to join the army
Who was the leader of the Provisional Government?
What did Lenin call his plans for Russia and what
The April Thesis
"Peace, Bread, Land"
"All Power to the Soviets"
Who lead the Red Army?
How many seats did the Bolsheviks win in the elect
What did the Treaty of Brest-Liovsk decide?
That large areas of Russia's best agricultural and industrial land was given to Germany
What was the name of the Bolshevik Secret Police?
What was "the dictatorship of the proletariat"?
The idea that a dictatorship was needed until Russia changed into a Communist country
What did the Comintern declare?
That it would cause communist revolutions all over the world