The Russian Revolution, c1910-1924

What were 4 background features of Russia before t

Slow communication -- railways, roads

Russification -- 6/10 people didn't speak Russian


Extremes between the rich and poor

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Describe the beliefs of the following opposing gro

Social Democrats -- wanted Communism

The Liberals -- wanted Democracy

Bolsheviks -- wanted a select group of revolutionaries to seize power on behalf of the workers

Mensheviks -- were similar to the Bolsheviks but wanted mass membership

The Social Revolutionaries -- wanted to seize land for the peasants and used violence and terror to achieve this

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What year did Nicolas II become Tsar?


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Name and describe the causes of the 1905 Revolutio

Poor harvest -- famine

The War with Japan -- many defeats, showed the government to be weak and incompetent, food shortages caused by war

Bloody Sunday -- peaceful demonstration at the Winter Palace, massacre killed 500 people, undermined the Tsar in the eyes of the people

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What event took place in January 1905?

Bloody Sunday

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What was included in the October Manifesto?

Freedom of speech

Allowance of Political parties

Introduction of the Duma

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What was the problem with the Duma?

The voting was rigged

The Duma was fundamentally controlled by the Tsar

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When were the Fundamental Laws passed by the Tsar?

May 1906

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What was included in the Fundamental Laws?

That the Tsar would remain an autocratic leader

The Duma had no say in most areas of the government

Duma reforms could be dismissed by the Tsar

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How was the remaining opposition to the Tsar in 19

It was crushed in towns and the countryside by the Tsar's forces

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Who was Rasputin?

A peasant holy man

He cured the Tsar's haemophiliac son, Alexis

He was a trusted member of the court

He was Alexandra's confidant

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Why did the public not like Rasputin? Name 3 thing

He was a womaniser

He drank

Rumour said that he was having an affair with Alexandra

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Why did the 1905 Revolution fail?

The army that had been released from Japan supported the Tsar

The Octoberists believed the Tsar when he released the Manifesto

The forces were uncoordinated

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What were 3 reasons for the revolution in 1917?

There were food shortages causing unrest amongst the people

The Petrograd Garrison turned against the Tsar

The Duma was ineffective

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On what date did the Tsar abdicate?

March 15, 1917

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Who was the Provisional Government lead by?


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What 3 things did the Provisional Government promi

To make Russia a democracy and organise a constituent assembly for voting

Land was to be given to the peasants

To consider Russia's role in WWI

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What 6 problems faced the Provisional Government?

Peasants had already started taking land

Soldiers were deserting Russia in the war

The P.G. had not been elected and so did not represent the people

Satellite states wanted independance

Soldiers and workers set up Soviets to represent their ideas

People wanted an immediate end to the food shortages and famine

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What are the differences between the Provisional G

The P.G. was supported by the middle class and the peasants and temporarily controlled the whole of Russia.

The Petrograd Soviet was supported by the workers and soldiers of Petrograd, but only controlled Petrograd

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What was 1 law made by the Petrograd Soviet?

That the army must follow the Provisional Government laws unless they contradicted Petrograd Soviet laws

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What 7 reforms did the Provisional Government make

Freedom of speech

Recognition of trade unions

Introduction to an 8-hour working day

Amnesty for political prisoners

Freedom of religion

Promise of elected government

The abolishment of the Tsar's secret police, the Ohkrana

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When did Lenin return and why?

April 1917

Germany sent Lenin, the leader of the Bolsheviks, back to Russia to end the war

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When did Russia resign from the war?

May 1917

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What was the Red Guard and when was it formed?


The Red Guard, the Bolshevik army/forces, was formed.

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What were the events of the July Days?

The Bolsheviks and the soldiers tried to overthrow the Provisional Government

Kerensky sent local troops to quash the rebels

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What were the outcomes of the July Days?

The Bolsheviks were either arrested or went into hiding. Lenin fled to Finland and the others were accused of being German spies by the Provisional Government

The Bolshevik newspaper, Pravda, was closed down

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When did the Kornilov Revolt occur?

September 1917

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What were the events of the Kornilov Revolt?

General Kornilov threatened to seize power of Petrograd

Kerensky asked the Bolsheviks to persuade many troops to desert

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What were the 2 outcomes of the Kornilov Revolt?

Kerensky and the Provisional Government were made to look weak

The Bolsheviks, comparatively, looked strong -- they were in control of both the Petrograd and Moscow Soviets

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What date did Lenin return (for the second time) t

7th October 1917

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What happened on the 10th October, 1917?

The Bolshevik Central Committee agreed on the uprising

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Who lead the 1917 Revolution?


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What date did the Bolsheviks overthrow the Provisi

October 24, 1917

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How did the Bolsheviks prepare for the overthrowin

The Bolsheviks were in control of the telegraph offices and train stations

There were roadblocks surrounding the Winter Palace

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What were the events of the Bolshevik Overthrow?

The Red Guard surrounded the Winter Palace

Kerensky tried to raise troops from the Front

The Provisional Government troops surrendered

The Provisional Government were placed under arrest.

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What were the consequences of the Bolshevik takeov

6 soldiers died

There were 18 arrests

The Provisional Government collapsed

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What 3 main reasons caused the Bolsheviks to be su

The Provisional Government was weak and only temporary

The Bolsheviks controlled the Petrograd Garrison

The Bolsheviks were the only political party who wanted an end to the war, and so the people supported them

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What 4 decrees did Lenin pass immediately after th

Capital punishment was to be abolished

Power to the local Soviets

All nations were called upon to negotiate peace

Land was given from the Tsar, church and landowners to the peasants

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What date was the first constituent assembly after

12th November, 1917

The Social Revolutionaries

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What was the date of the second Constituent Assemb

5th January, 1918

The Bolsheviks won because the election was rigged

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What groups did the Reds and Whites consist of?

Reds -- Bolsheviks

Whites -- many groups

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What date did Trotsky start building the Red Army?

January 18, 1918

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When and why was the capital moved the Moscow?

March 1918 because the transportation was better

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What happened in October 1919?

The Whites advanced on Petrograd and Trotsky sent a counterattack

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How did the West Allies support the Whites in the

November 1919 they stopped supporting the Whites with supplies and men

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Who won the Civil War? Where and when?

The Reds won the civil war in Crimea in April 1920, though some white groups kept fighting into 1921

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In what 3 ways did the Bolsheviks respond to the p

The number of Red Army troops in between 1917 and January 1918 was trippled

The political opposition was clamped down on by the Cheka

War communism was introduced (food was taken from the peasants and distributed by the government)

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What 7 reasons caused the Reds to win the Civil Wa

War Communism was efficient

The Cheka made open resistance to the state difficult and dangerous

Trotsky was a strong leader

The Reds had good transportation from Moscow

The Whites were uncoordinated

The Whites conscripted unwilling peasants

The Whites treated the troops badly

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What were the effects of War Communism?

By 1920 the Peasants produced 37% of the crops in 1913

Inflation caused money to be worthless

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Other than food what were 3 more features of War C

Industry only made things for war

The government controlled banks, money and prices

Rights were cut back on

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When did the Bolsheviks change their name and what

The Bolsheviks became the Communist Party in 1918

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What 4 things did people receive under The Communi

The right to free speech

No censorship

Free education

Free medical care

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What 4 disadvantages were there to being under the

There were high levels of State Control

They suppressed Workers' committees

Execution was used for control over the country and the army

The Checka was used to control political opposition


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In the Civil War, who did the Greens consist of?

Peasant armies (deserters) who wanted to protect their local area

Bandits who raided and looted

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When did the Kronstadt Rebellion take place?

March 1921

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What were the events of the Kronstadt Rebellion

Sailors at the Kronstadt Naval Base objected to War Communism and set up The Workers Opposition Group

The Red Army moved in on the Base

20,000 people were killed

Surivers were tortured by the Cheka and sent to labour camps

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What were the 3 features of Lenin's New Economic P

Money was re-introduced -- there was new coinage and a state bank

Confiscation of crops was stopped, but peasants had to pay tax on crops

Factories with less than 20 people could be privately owned and make profit

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What were 3 effects of Lenin's New Economic Policy

There were 20% more crops

There were twice as many people who owned animals

90% as opposed to 1% of cotton mills were in working order

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What date did Lenin die?

21st January 1924

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What was the name of the Tsar's secret police?


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How many men left the countryside to join the army

16 million

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Who was the leader of the Provisional Government?


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What did Lenin call his plans for Russia and what

The April Thesis

"Peace, Bread, Land"

"All Power to the Soviets"

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Who lead the Red Army?


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How many seats did the Bolsheviks win in the elect


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What did the Treaty of Brest-Liovsk decide?

That large areas of Russia's best agricultural and industrial land was given to Germany

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What was the name of the Bolshevik Secret Police?


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What was "the dictatorship of the proletariat"?

The idea that a dictatorship was needed until Russia changed into a Communist country

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What did the Comintern declare?

That it would cause communist revolutions all over the world

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