The Aeneid


Fathers and Sons

  • Aeneas and Ascanius 
    • Aeneas cares about Ascanius - sends for him when he is banqueting witth Dido
    • Aeneas trusts Ascanius - leaves him in charge of the camp by the mouth of the Tiber 
  • Aeneas and Anchises
    • Aeneas trusts Anchises - follows his advice when he interprets that Helenus' message means they should build thier city in Crete fatherland of Tecuer - Helenus called them 'sons of Dardanus' - were meant to sail to Italy 
    • Aeneas protects Anchises - carried him out of Troy in his shoulders
    • Aeneas cares for his father - hold funeral games a year after his death
  • Aeneas and Pallas
    • Avenges him - kills Turnus when he sees Pallas' belt
    • Angry at his death - kills a preist and a man begging for mercy on his knees
  • Evander and Pallas
    • Evander prays to Zeus to tell him to kill him first if
    • Evander has to admit that he cannot protect his son in battle - must put his in the care of Aeneas
    • Son dies before father
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Fathers and sons

  • Mezentius and Lausus
    • Mezentius confesses his sins when he hears Lausus has died for him
    • challenges Aeneas while he is injured so that he can die an honourable death to atone for Lausus' death 
    • Lausus tries to defend his father's honour by standing between Mezentius and Aeneas
  • Priam and Polites
    • Priam must watch Pyrrhus kill Polites in front of him
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Furor and fire

  • Aeneas
    • Runs to defend Troy when he 
    • Almost kills Helen when she is praying in the Temple of Vesta
    • Runs back into Troy to find Creusa - abandons his people at sanctuary of Ceres  
    • Goes on a killing spree after Pallas is killed
    • Storms the city while Turnus is trying to restore order by challenging Aeneas to man to man combat
  • Dido
    • Irrationalty beggs Aeneas to stay and disguards the importance of his destiny
    • Commits sucide in anger and grief - stabs and sets fire to herself
  • Turnus
    • Initially resists Allecto - tells her to leave war and peace to men
    • Allecto shoots anger into his heart and he opens the gates of war
    • Kills Pallas
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    • Breaks of the debate with Drances when he hears that the Trojans are advancing up the river
    • Leaves his tactical position in the forest when he hears Camilla has been killed - would have defeated 
  • Amata
    • Kidnapps Lavinia 
    • Commits suicide when she thinks that Turnus been killed
  • Mezentius 
    • Challenges Aeneas
  • Lausus
    • Steps between Aeneas and his father and challenges Aeneas
  • Camilla
    • Dies because she is distracted by Croesus' golden armour
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  • Juno
    • Described as burning with anger at the Trojans
    • persuades
    • Sends Allecto to anger Turnus and Amata
    • Sends Iris to persuade the Trojan women to burn the Trojan fleet in Sicily
  • Venus
    • Burns with maternal love for Aeneas
    • Has Cupid shoot love for Aeanes into Dido's heart
    • Pleads with her father to end Aeneas suffering
    • Accuses Juno of starting the war
  • Allecto 
    • She poisons Amata's blood with a snake - makes her kidnap Lavinia and run into the forest
  • Iris 
    • Disguses herself as Beroe to persuade the Trojan women to set fire to the fleet in S
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  • Dido
    • Is intially loyal to dead husband Sychaeus - refuses to marry neighbouring king
    • Is emotional - gives in to her love for Aeneas - has sex with him in the cave and considers this marriage
    • Has furor - commits suicide and begs Aenead to stay
  • Amata
    • Intially obeys her husband - doesn't stop 
    • Filled with anger by Allecto - kidnapps Lavinia 
    • irrational 
  • Creusa
    • Is loyal to her husband -  walks behind him out of Troy
    • Challenges her husband - argues that he should stay to die defending his family instead of his family 
  • Andromache 
    • Has a shrine to first husband Helenus
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  • Lavinia
    • Remians silent even when her mother dies - obeys fate and her father
  • Beroe
    • Trusted because she is old and has borne sons
  • Juno
    • Tries to manipulate her husband
    • Constantly 
    • Furor - nurses a burning wound of hatred for the Trojans
  • Venus
    • Manipulates her husband - seduces Vulcan to get him to make Aeneas an immovable sheild
    • Tries to manipulate her father
    • Protects her son - clouds him with mist in Carthage, makes Dido fall in love with him and persuades Neptune not to harm Aeneas on crossing from Carthage to Italy
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  • Allecto
    • Furor - turns the Latins' city into chaos and tells Juno that she is willing to do more
  • Iris 
    • Scheming - disguises herself as beroe to trick the Trojan women
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  • Jupiter's prophecies
    • Claims Roman Empire will be limitless and everlasting
  • Procession of future Roman heros
    • 'You task, Roman, and do not forget it, is to govern the world in your empire'
    • Romulus has been crowned by the gods in a past life
    • Augustus 'brought back the golden years to Rome'
  • Evander's house
    • Originally Heracles' house on Pallentine Hill
    • Augustus lived in this house - links him to Hercules
    • Was small - Augustus was frugal like Evander and Hercules
  • The Ara Maxiumus
    • Still there in Augustan Rome
    • Created to give sacrifices to Hercules for defeating Cacus
  • The Gates of War
    • Tradition of opening Gates in times of war - Augustus closed it 3 times
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  • Aeneas' shield
    • Romulus and Remus
    • **** of the Sabine women
    • Cicero's laws
    • Battle of Actium - Augustus standing on the poop of his ship - order of Romans and their gods vs disorder of Egyptians and their animal gods
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  • Highlighted as the most important figure in the procession of heroes
    • 'brought back the days of gold to Rome'
  • Battle of Actium in at the centre of Aeneas' shield
    • Emphasises Augustus imposition of order - Egyptians disordered and babaric
  • Evanders' house
    • Belonged to Hercules
    • Small - Augustus was frugal
  • Aeneas standing on the poop of his ship like Augustus at Actium  
    • Order
    • Light falshing from his forehead
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Flawed hero

Flawed Hero 

  • Furor
    • Rushes to defend Troy despite being told by Hector to take the people of city and flee
    • Venus has to stop him from killing Helen - convinces himthe gods destroyed Troy
    • Runs back into Troy to find his wife - abandons his people and his destiny 
    • Killing spree after Pallas death
    • Turnus after he begs to be spared


  • Pietas
    • Ignores Didos pleas for him to stay to follow his destiny
    • Sacrifices the white sow that indicates the 
  • Virtus
    • Manages to kill many Greeks while city
    • Marches against Latins' city
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Flawed Hero

  • Clementia
    • Decides to rescue Achaemenides from the Cyclops island after Ulixes abandons him
    • Shows remorse after he kills Lasus
  • Frugalitas
    • Sleeps on the deck of his ship after leaving Dido
    • Shoots seven deer after landing in Thrace before feeding himself
  • Patientia
    • Endures the storm - prays to Jupiter
    • Quietly buries his father and continues on his journey
    • Accepts that he must leaves his dead and continue on his journey
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Admirable Hero


  • Good leader
    • Goes the long way around Sicily to avoid Syclla and Charibdis
    • Kills 7 deer when they reach Thrace to feed men before feeding himself
  • Good son
    • Listens to his father - Anchises persuades him
    • Respects his father - sails to Crete on his instruction
  • Good father
    • Protects his son - leads him by the hand ourt of Troy
    • Cares for him - can't bear to be seperated from him in Carthage - has to send for him
  • Pietas 
    • Obeys mercury when he is told to leaves Carthage
    • Obeys Jupiter sign to leave Troy
    • Goes straight to the place Anchises belives they must build thier city
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Admirable Hero

  • Virtus
    • Tries to defend Troy agianst the Greeks and manages to kill many
    • Leads his men around the back of the city to seize it
    • Engages Turnus in single combat to end the war
  • Clementia
    • Feels remorse for killing Lausus
    • Doesn't kill Helen
    • Rescues Acaemenides from Cyclops island

Not Admirable

  • Furor
    • Rushes into Troy to defend it
    • Almost kills Helen
    • Rushes into trying to find Creusa
    • Killing spree after Pallas' death
    • Kills Turnus
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  • Emotianal involvement
    • Death of Pallas - first battle and Turnus dishonours his death by taking his sword belt
    • Death of Lausus - first battle and trying to protect his father 
    • Death of Dido - abandoned by Aeneas - tragedy
    • Death of Turnus - Begged Aeneas to spare his lfe and gave him the kingdom and Lavinia
  • Action packed
    • Fall of Troy
    • Storm
    • Harpies - attack them after takeing thier food
    • Turnus storms the Trojans camp 
    • Nisus and Euryaelus slaugther Rutulitians in thier sleep
    • Aeneas storms the city and begins to set fire
    • Trojans march on the city
    • Turnus and Aeneas in single combat
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Divine intervention

  • Jupiter
    • Sets Ascanius' hair on fire and send comet to persuade Aeneas to leave Troy 
    • Sends a rainstorm to put out the fire
    • Sends Mercury to tell Aeneas to leave Carthage
  • Juno
    • Sends a storm to make Aeneas and Dido shelter in a cave and have sex
    • Makes Aeolus create a storm
    • Make a phanthom Aeneas to lead Turnus away from the battlefield
    • Sends Iris to persuade the Trojan women 
  • Venus
    • Disguises herself as Spartan huntress and tells Aeneas to go to Carthage
    • Puts a cloud around Aeneas in Carthage
    • Sends Cupid to fire love for Aeneas into Dido's heart
    • Stops Aeneas killing Helen and persuades him to go back to his family
    • Pulls out Aeneas spear from sacred tree trunk
    • Persuades Neptune not to kill Aeneas men 
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Divine intervention

  • Neptune
    • Calms the storm ordered by Juno
    • Kills Palinurus by sending him to sleep at the helm of Aeneas ship to show his power
  • Iris
    • Disguises herself as Beroe
  • Allecto
    • Puts anger into Turnus and Amata - causes the war 
  • Apollo
    • Tells Aeneas to build his city in the fatherland of his forefather
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Follow fate

  • Aeneas
    • Leads Trojans away from Troy
    • Leaves Dido
    • Goes straight to Crete
    • Fights Turnus
  • Anchises
    • Persuade Aeneas to leave Troy
  • Creusa
    • Tells Aeneas to follow his fate
  • Latinus
    • Willing to let Aeneas marry Lavinia
    • Locks himself away in his castle
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  • Turnus
    • Tells Allecto to leave peace and war to men
  • Amata 
    • Obey her husband untill war is declared
  • Evander
    • Accepts that his son could be destined to die
    • Gives Aeneas soldiers to fight Turnus
  • Lavinia
    • Stays silent 

Don't follow fate

  • Aeneas
    • Stay with Dido in Carthage
    • Runs into battle in Troy
    • Allows Anchises to persuade him to go to Crete instead of Italy
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  • Juno 
    • Causes a storm that wrecks the fleet
    • Makes Dido believe that she is married to Aeneas
    • causes Turnus to declare war and break the peace treaty
    • Leads Turnus away from battle
  • Venus
    • Makes Dido fall in love with Aeneas
  • Juturna
    • Drives Turnus' chariot away from Aeneas 
  • Turnus
    • Declares war on Aeneas
    • Breaks the peace treaty
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  • Amata
    • Kidnapps Lavinia and runs into the woods
    • Tries to persuade Latinus to let Turnus marry Lavinia
  • Dido
    • Begs Aeneas to forget his destiny
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Augustus' revival of religion

  • Built and restored 82 temples 
    • 'restored eighty-two temples of the gods in the city on the authority of the senate, neglecting none that required restoration’
    • 'the temples on the Capitol of Jupiter Feretrius and Jupiter the Thunderer, the temple of Quirinus, the temples of Minerva and Queen Juno and Jupiter Libertas on the Aventine, the temple of the Lares at the top of the Sacred Way, the temple of the Di Penates in the Velia, the temple of Youth and the temple of the Great Mother on the Palatine'
  • Built the Ara Pacis in 13 BC
  • Introduced the Imperial Cult - worshiped the emperor
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Augustus' reform of the family

  • Outlawed adultery and promiscuous behaviour 

      Leges Juliae de Maritandis Ordinibus and de Adulteriis 11 BC 

    • Fathers could kill his daughter and her lover 

    • Husbands could kill his wife's lover in certain circumstances and were forced to divorce thier wife

    • Adulters were banished and had thier property confiscated

    • banished his daughter Julia in 2 BC

  • Discorauged celibacy
    • Lex Papia Poppaea 9 AD
    • Roman men between the ages of 25 and 60 and women between 20 and 50 could not inherit any property at all if they were unmarried
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Reform of family

  • Encoraged Romans to have more children
    • Lex Papia Poppaea 9 AD

      orbi (married people without children) would only receive half of their inheritance unless they had at least one child of their own; adopting close relatives did not count.  

    • "Law of the Three Sons" 17-18AD - released woman from control of their guardians if they produced three sons

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Augustus taking care of the Roman people

  • Aqueducts
    • 'brought water from a new spring into the aqueduct called Marcia, doubling the supply'
  • Funded sports events'
    • [He] gave three gladiatorial games in [his] own name and five in that of my sons or grandsons […] twice in my own name and a third time in that of my grandson [he] presented to the people displays by athletes summoned from all parts. [He] produced shows in [his] own name four times and in place of other magistrates twenty-three times and, “In the consulship of Gaius Furnius and Gaius Silanus [17 BC]'
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Taking care of Roman people

  • Provided bread and money to plebians 
    • 'to each (…) of the Roman plebs I paid under my father’s will 300 sesterces, (44 BC) and in my own name (…) 400 each from the body of war in my fifth consulship, (29 BC) (…) in my tenth consulship, (24BC) I paid out 400 sesterces (…) to each man from my own patrimony; (…) in my eleventh consulship I bought, (…) with my own money, twelve rations (of grain) apiece, and in the twelfth year of my tribunician power (11 BC) I gave 400 sesterces for the third time'
  • Praetonian Guard
    • set up as an early police force in 27 BC
  • Vigiles Urbani
    • watchmen of the city
    • Set up as fire brigade in 6AD
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Augustus and fatherhood

  • Came to his father's aid in Spain 45 BC
    • accompanied Caesar on his military expedition to Spain to defeat and destroy the sons of Pompey who were trying to perpetuate their father's opposition to Caesar 
    • Led his part of the army across Spain aged 18
  • Deified his father 44 BC
    • Augustus saw Hayley’s comet and proclaimed that this was Julius’ soul leaving his body and joining the gods and the stars
  • Exiled his father murders
    • ‘I drove into exile the murderers of my father, avenging their crime through tribunals established by law; and afterwards, when they made war on the republic, I twice defeated them in battle'
  • Adopted two of his grandsons and his stepson
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The Empire under Augustus

  • Closed the Gates of War three times
  • Built the Ara Pacis 13 BC
  • Defeated Mark Anthony at the Battle of Actium 31 BC - disposed of Trivirate and unified the empire
    • ‘I successfully championed the liberty of the republic when it was oppressed by the tyranny of a faction’
  • Stabilised the Empire's borders
    • 'where foreign peoples could safely be pardoned I preferred to preserve rather than to exterminate them'
    • 'I extended the territory of all those provinces of the Roman people on whose borders lay people not subject to our government. I brought peace to the Gallic and Spanish provinces as well as to Germany, throughout the area bordering on the Ocean from Cadiz to the mouth of the Elbe'
  • Established the Pax Romana by closing the gates of war in 27 BC 
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