The 1530's

Revision cards for the period 1530's in Henry VIII's reign.

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Prior to 1530

Leviticus is found - brother can't marry his brothers wife - childless.
1509 - 29 - Henrician foreign policy failed; England was too small a player, wars with france cause high unpopular taxation, henry's treatment of Catherine causes tension with Charles V (same as Charles I of Spain) of HRE (Catherines' aunt) and other powers are favourable of the HRE, Peace of Cambrai in 1529 leaves England isolated, outdated claim to the French throne and Henry manipulated by Catherines father, Ferdinand, early on.

However, some success with land gained in france with campaigns, Treaty of London 1518 which causes whole of europe to be at pace (credited to Wolsey), England never invaded and England did quite well by 1529 in question of its power, economy and influence.

1527 - Enquiry into the validity of Henry and Catherine's marriage has begun. 

1529 - Fall of Wolsey (due to his inability to gain Henry an annulment from Catherine) and the Reformation Parliament is created (November) to put pressure on Rome to grant the annulement through fear of consequences.

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1530

Throughout 1530 Henry's agents scoured the universities, seeking verdicts in Henry's favour. 
Clergy are accused of Praemunire (being loyal to someone outside of England - the Pope) as Henry started to put pressure on the Church.

January - Anne's brother travels to the Pope and Charles V to support Henry's case. This fails.

May - Cambridge and Oxford in Henry's favour.

September - Collectanea Satis Copiosa (Cranmer & Foxe) - justifies Henry's annulment on legal grounds based on historical principles. England had always been under the authority of the monarch so Henry could claim his own marriage null & void.

November - Death of Wolsey

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1531

Clergy pardoned from Praemunire with a bribe of £118,000.

February - Henry is 'Supreme Head of the Church as far as the law of Christ allows' this brough Henry in direct opposition to the Pope and Henry became confident in his authority.

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1532

'Supplication Against the Orginaries' - church has seperate laws to the Crown.
'Submission of the Clergy' - Church accept King's laws and he has to approve future and present laws.
The Act in Conditional Restraint of Annates - threatened the reducements of payments to Rome from England to a mere sum.
Thomas More resigns as Chancellor.
Anne Boleyn becomes pregnant making Break of Rome iniment.

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1533

Henry and Anne marry in secret
homas Cranmer becomes Archbishiop of Cantebury and declares Henry's marriage to Catherine null & void.
The Act in Conditional Restraint of Annates - confirmed.
The Act in Restraint of Appeals - abolished appeals to Rome in cases (such as matrimony)
Princess Elizabeth is born.

July - Henry is excommunicated.

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1534

The Act of Supremacy - Henry is head of the church, no more ' as far as the law allows' and makes denial of royal supremacy a treasonal act.
The Submission of the Clergy - confirmed by law, deprived the Pope of any authority in England.
Elizabeth Barton, the 'Nun of Kent', is executed.
First Fruits and Tenths to the Crown - any benefice holder (e.g. bishop) paid one years income to the crown instead of the papacy.
The Act of Succession - registered the invalidity of Henry's marriage to Catherine and the validity of his marriage to Anne with Mary bastardised and Anne's children legitimised. The act also proposed to bind the nation, by oath, to their marriage,the new Queen and her children.
Pope Clement VII declares henry's marriage to Catherine valid - Clement VII is under Charles V control.

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1535

Bishop Fisher, Thomas More and a group of Carthusian monks were executed for reisting the royal supremacy.
January - Cromwell made Vice-Gerent in Spirituals showing evidence of the swing to reformist influence over Henry.
- Valor Ecclesiasticus - Cromwell began visiting religious houses to gain a census of the Churchs/monastries wealth.

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1536

Smaller monastries dissolved.
The Pilgrimage of Grace - abolished.
The Ten Articles - Official statement of doctrine moving towards protestantism with clear signs of Lutheran teachings.
Anne Boleyn tried for treason and adultery and is executed. Henry marries Jane Seymour the next day.
The Reformation Parliament is shut down after Annes death.
Royal Supremacy is finalised with the Act Extinguishing the Authority of the Bishop of Rome - removed Papal rights to preach and teach in England.

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1537

Great northern monastries surrendered to the King after their abbots were involved in the Pilgrimage of Grace which was abolished the previous year.

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1538

Royal injunctions issued - ordering the bible in english (opposed to the normal latin) so the public can read and understand it.
Shrines and other places of pilgrimage are shut down.
Truce of Nice signed by Charles V and Francis I - temporary halt to the Halsburg-Valois War and created the possibility of a joint invasion of England by the Catholic powers. Threat lasted until 1540 and prompted Henry to move back to Catholicism.

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1539

Larger monastries are dissolved.
The Act of Six Articles - revised doctrine statement moving back towards catholicism with anyone rejecting transubstantiation being a treasonable act. The act allowed:-
- transubstantiation
- private Masses
- hearing of confession by priests
It banned:-
- marriage of priests 
- the marriage of anybody who had taken the vow of chastity
- the taking of communion in both kinds
severe penalities for those who went against the act.

All monastries closed down and their land passed to the crown.

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