The Crimean War

  • Created by: lwilson23
  • Created on: 21-02-19 13:16

Arrival in Crimea

- British forces arrived in Crimea full of confidence - 'Waterloo mentality' prevailed. 

- Britain got involved due to Russian expansion into Danubian principalities and wanted to prevent trade blockades. Also religious motive but we can't write about this.

- British troops arrived on 13 September 1854 - aimed to take Sevastapol (key Crimean city).

- Lord Raglan presided over the troops - respected member of the Duke of Wellington's staff who would make bad decisions during the war - died from dysentry and exhaustion in Crimea in 1855.

- different breed to Wellington - would distance himself from battles. HQ behind frontlines.

- first bad decision related to where Britain docked - chose Balaclava rather than Kamiesh - Kamiesh a better position for supply links etc. 

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The Battle of the Alma

- 20th September 1854.

- Aimed to capture the Great Redoubt in order to secure Allied advance. 

- diversionary French advance fails to distract Russians - Sir George Brown's literal short-sightedness means he doesn't see this so Britain advance anyway.

- superior British tech and the role of Colin Campbell and his Scottish 93rd Highland Regiment which deceived the Russians into thinking there were more British soldiers than there actually were (they were that good) causes Russian retreat and British victory!

- Russian losses could have been greater if Raglan had deployed the cavalry. 

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The Battle of Balaclava

- 25th October 1854.

- rather than march straight onto Sevastapol Raglan decided to siege - giving Russians time to prepare for battle. 

- lack of Allied support meant that Russians easily captured Turkish guns positioned near the city.

- 93rd Scottish Highlanders once more played crucial role in halting Russian cavalry advance - formed 'thin red line' - used volley fire to repel rather than forming squares. Enfield rifle better than brown bess - massive help. 

- Heavy Brigade helped the Highlanders - 250 Russian cavalry casualties compared to 10 British.

- infamous charge of the light brigade - Raglan's vague orders given to Captain Nolan were misinterpreted - pointed down wrong valley for cavalry to charge when delivering orders to Lucan and Cardigan. Both these men could have questioned the orders - did not. 

- 113 men out of 673 died when attempting to capture the Russian guns - ended in British victory.

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The Battle of Inkerman

- 5th November 1854.

- Russians attempted to attack the British at dawn in order to break the siege of Sevastapol. Britain outnumbered

- the foggy conditions saved Britain - massively hindered Russian accuracy - had to hold out until French reinforcements arrived. 

- Coldstream and Grenadier Guards crucial to British success. 

- The French arrived - ending the battle at 5000 Allied losses and 12,000 Russian ones.

- Russian retreat to Sevastapol - never fight Britain on open ground again. Siege is on.

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The Siege of Sevastapol

- 17 October 1854 - 9 September 1855

- remainder of war consisted of sieging Sevastapol - aimed to starve out Russians. 

- primitive trench warfare which highlighted the pitiful organisation of the British army. 

- forced to endure one of the coldest winters Russia had ever had. 

- naval blockade mid-1855 cut off Russian supply - couldn't last long after this. 

- city taken after combined Allied assault - war ended shortly after. 

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