Type & Trait
General Patterns & Individual Differences
Stable Personality - All have good support, limited set of stable traits.
- HIPPOCRATES - 4 humours (body fluids)
- MYERS-BRIGGS Type Inventory - thinkers, feelers, sensers, intuiters.
- EYSENCK (Nativist) - 2 + secondary traits, Biological, Measured by EPI
- BIG 5 - 5 traits
- CATTELL - 16 Factors
Adult Personality = Stable, gentic, it's a disposition, constant, not cognitive
3 Questions - What are the characteristics, how many & what influences.
Temperament - Quantitative research - Dimensions, causes and variation.
- Emotional Response (Mood)
- Attentional Orientation Patterns (Speed)
- Motor Activity (frequency)
Stability - Regularity of characteristic (New behaviours emege by 5 years)
Continuity - Similarity of behaviour range.
Behavioural Inhibition - Develops by end of 1st year
Effortful Control - Develops late infancy and beyond.
Problems with Defining Temperament
Extent to which it's heritable - BUSS & PLOMIN
High correlation for EAS in MZ twins and practically none in DZ twins.
AUBERBACH et al - 7r variant of gene, dopamine receptors, pathways
SCHMIDT et al - Link problems, attention, risk taking & aggression.
Temperament has direct influence on child development and indirect. Indirect could be parents reaction to child's temperament.
Colorado Adoption Project - High Correlation for E & S from 1-4yo but less so for A. - Data from parents so could be biased.
CASPI et al - Adults in Big 5 questionairre - clear relationship to childhood. Variation seen though.
Problems with Defining Temperament 2
HINDE & TOBIN - coherence of temperament (behaviours in different contexts) - Gender differences found (shy girls, good mother relationship)
Temperament emerge in early life unlike like strong genetic characteristics.
Parental Observations - Extensive across time but biased
Interviews - Direct and Accourate but still with reliability and validity issues.
HAGEKULL et al - Found parent reports have good validity.
Four Temperament Theories - 9 Dimentional Framewor
1) THOMAS & CHESS - 9 Dimentional Framework
- May not be independent, validity questions, difficult to replicate.
- EASY - SLOW TO WARM UP - DIFFICULT
- Difficult child - high scores on intensity of reaction, low on adapability.
BATES & BALES - Link of temperament reported by mother at 2 years and behaviour problems from 3-6 years.
VAUGHAN et al - Mothers decide on childs temperament before birth and this affects her attitue to child from birth onwards. Bias. Parents can shape temperament.
PAULI-POTT et al - Parental perception of infant emotion at 4 months predicts predicted measures at 8 months
Four Temperament Theories - EAS Framework
2) BUSS & PLOMIN - EAS Framework
EMTIONALITY ACTIVITY SOCIABILITY
(Possiblly Impulsivity & Shyness too)
- Links with adult personlaities, EYSENCKS Traits linked, Genetic Influences, rests on statistical analysis.
Four Temperament Theories - Inhibition to the Unfa
3) KAGAN - Inhibition to the unfamiliar
- Categorical approach NOT dimensional like others
- Emphasise Qualitative differences between types.
- Distiction on basis of behavioural inhibition
- How child is when meeting new people
- Physiological differences - linked to limbic system.
- Measured in reactivity
- Says that CHANGE IS POSSIBLE with effort.
Four Temperament Theories - Embedding temperment i
4) DUNN & KENDRICK - Embedding temperament in social relationships
- Influence of social context on behaviour.
- Arrival of new sibling not only related to temperament but also QUALITY of interaction between mother and child.
- Stability of temperament reflects stability of relationship NOT Genetic Influences
Influence of Temperament on Development
- EFFECT OF TEMPERAMENT ON DEVELOPMENT - TIZARD & HUGHES -Can affect learning, impulsivity & poor attention, problems at home and school. KEOGH - Task orientation in older child has implications for learning.
- EFFECT OF CHILD TEMPERAMENT ON PARENTS - SAMEROFF's TRANSACTIONAL MODEL - child directly influence own development, not actively selecting activities but influence carer behaviour.
- VIA SUSCEPTIBILITY TO ADVERSITY - Temperament may be linked to vunerability to stress. DUNN & KENDRICK - Child with new sibling showing disturbed behaviour scored higher on Intensity and Negative Mood.
- EFFECT ON THE RANGE OF EXPERIENCE - Mobile child can select to avoid particular experiences which can exaggerate existing characteristics.
- VIA 'GOODNESS OF FIT' - Impact of temperament can be related to features of environment such as the behaviour to child by others.
Influence of Temperament on Development 2
SCARR & MCCARTNEY - 3 ways temperament impact environment of child.
- PASSIVE - Child & carer have similar temperament
- EVOCATIVE - child evokes response from carer
- ACTIVE - child selects best environment, more prominent with age.
No link between temperament or caregiver personality diffences linked to secure/insecure attachment.
BELSKY & ISABELLA - combination between carer and child did predict security of attachment which supports transactional model
- Difficulties with measuring temperament, strengths and weaknesses of parental observation and interviews
PERSPECTIVES - NATIVISM & CONSTRUCTIVISM
- Temperament is Innate by definition. Although reserach suggests that change may be possible. Environmental factors need to be taken in to account, not just genetic ones
NATURE-NURTURE & TRANSACTIONAL MODELS
- Although temperament is innacte, transactional models suggest whole range of factors highlighting that nature/nurture is oversimplistic and not an appropriate question