Structure and Anatomy of the Human Body

Structure and Anatomy of the Human Body

Structure and Anatomy of the Human Body

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Human Organs

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Anatomy

  • Anatomical terminology: common language of special terms used by scientists and health-care professionals when referring to body structures and their functions
  • Anatomical position: subject stands erect (body is upright) facing observer
    • Head level
    • Eyes facing directly forward
    • Arms at sides
    • Palms turned forward
    • Feet -flat on floor and facing forward
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Supine and Prone Positions

  • Supine position: body is face up
  • Prone position: body is face down
  • Regional names
    • head (cephalon)
    • neck (cervicis)
    • trunk
    • upper limbs
    • lower limbs
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Head/Cephalon (Cephalic)

  • Skull/cranium (cranial)
    • Encloses and protects brain
  • Face (facial)
    • Anterior (front) portion of the head
    • Includes:
      • forehead
      • eye
      • cheeks (buccal)
      • nose (nasal)
      • mouth (oral)
      • chin
      • ear (otic)
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Neck/Cervicis (Cervical)

  • Supports head
  • Attaches head to trunk
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Trunk

  • Chest/thorax/thoracis (thoracic)
  • Breast/mamma (mammary)
  • Abdomen (abdominal)
  • Navel/umbilicus (umbilical)
  • Pelvis (pelvic)
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Upper Limb

  • Shoulder
  • Armpit
  • Arm
  • Back of elbow
  • Front of elbow
  • Forearm
  • Wrist
  • Hand
    • Palm
    • Thumb
    • Fingers
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Lower Limb

  • Groin
  • Pubis
  • Thigh
  • Knee cap
  • Leg
  • Ankle
  • Feet
    • Toes
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Planes and Sections

Directional Terms

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Body Cavities

  • Spaces within the body that help:
    • Protect internal organs
    • Separate internal organs
    • Support internal organs
  • Different cavities are separated by
    • Bones
    • Muscle
    • Ligaments
  • 2 principal cavities:
    • dorsal cavity
    • ventral cavity
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Dorsal and Ventral Cavity

Dorsal Body Cavity

  • Located near the dorsal (posterior) surfact of the body
  • Cranial cavity
    • Formed by cranial bones
    • Contains the brain
  • Vertebral (spinal) canal
    • Formed by bones of the vertebral column (backbone)
    • Contains spinal cord
  • Meninges
    • 3 layers of protective issue
    • Line dorsal body cavity
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Ventral Body Cavity

  • Located on the ventral (anterior) aspect of the body
  • 2 main subdivisions:
    • Thoracic cavity
    • Abdominopelvic cavity
  • Diaphragm
    • Large dome-shaped muscle that powers lung expansion during breathing
    • Forms floor of thoracic cavity
    • Forms roof of abdominopelvic cavity
  • Viscera
    • Organs in ventral cavity
  • Serous membrane
    • Covers the viscero and lines the walls of thorax and abdomen
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Ventral Body Cavity

Thoracic Cavity

  • Encircled by:
    • the ribs
    • muscles of the chest
    • sternum (breast bone)
    • thoracic portion of the vertebral column (backbone)
  • 3 smaller cavities inside thoracic cavity:
    • pericardial cavity
    • pleural cavities
    • mediastinum
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Pericardium

  • Pericardial cavity: fluid filled space that surrounds the heart 

Pleural Cavities and Mediastinum

Abdominopelvic Cavity

  • Inferior portion of the ventral cavity
  • Encircled by:
    • abdominal wall
    • bones and muscles of the pelvis
  • Divided into 2 portions (not separated by wall)
    • Abdominal cavity
      • Contains: stomach, spleen, liver, gallbladder, small intestine, most of large intestine
    • Pelvic cavity
      • Contains: urinary bladder, portions of the large intestine, internal organs of reproductive system
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Abdominopelvic Cavity

  • Peritoneum: serous membrane of the abdominal cavity

Abdominopelvic Quadrants

  • A transverse and midsagittal plane are passed through the umbilicus (belly button)
  • Used by clinicians for describing the site of abdominopelvic:
    • pain
    • tumour
    • other abnormality
  • Right upper quadrant
  • Left upper quadrant
  • Right lower quadrant
  • Left lower quadrant
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