STRESS

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  • Created by: Emma
  • Created on: 02-06-13 21:36

STRESS

  • perceived environmental, social, physical demands exceed ability to cope
  • threaten well-being
  • fight or flight
  • acute= immediate
  • chronic= prolonged/ ongoing

Stress= increase pupil size, increase heart rate, sweat, glycogen turned into glucose, adrenal medulla stimulated release adrenaline

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ACUTE STRESS REACTION

  • stress arouse autonomic nervous system (ANS) which is automatic
  • divided into- 1. sympathetic pathway (fight or flight prep) 2. parasympathetic pathway (return relaxation)
  • exposed acute stressors= SNS activated prepare fight or flight
  • key part= sympathetic adrenal medullary system (SAM)
  • acoute stressor --> activate autonomic nervous system --> sympathetic branch (SNS) --> noradrenaline --> adrenal medulla/ SAM --> adrenaline --> fight of flight response/ reaction
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CHRONIC STRESS REATION

  • pituitary adrenal system (HPA)
  • control level cortisol, stress related hormones
  • hard activate HPA

Hypothalamus: stressor percived, message sent hypothalamus (control system over bodies hormones), activation part hypothalamus called PVN, produces CRF released into blood stream response to stress

Pituitary gland- CRF arrive at pituitary gland & make it produce ACTH (adrenocorticotrophic hormone) released into blood stream head to adrenal glands

Adrenal cortex: releases cortisol (some effects good, some bad), prolonged ACTH= adrenal cortex gets bigger cope increase amount of cortisol production, LT deficiany= shrink

  • 20 min process complete
  • efficient

message sent hypothalamus --> activate PVN --> produces CRF --> CRF pituitary gland produce ACTH --> adrenal cortex releases cortisol --> prolonged ACTH= bigger adrenal cortex, deficiancy = shrink

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CHRONIC STRESS- KIECOLT-GLASER

  • natural experiment
  • psychological stress damage immune system
  • 2 groups, matched pairs design, volunteer sample- 1. caregivers look after relative Alzheimer's 8+ years 2. control PPs women matched based income, age, family
  • CGs score higher on percieved stress scale
  • functioning immune system measured punch biopsy forearm (time heal)
  • observe time heal using photographing regularly and observe response hydrogen peroxide
  • small amount blood- analysis before punch biopsy
  • CGS= longer 48.7 days
  • PPs= 39.3 days
  • CGS larger wound size
  • CGS produce lower Interleukin B levels than PPs (speeds wound healing)

increase psychological stress levels does damage functioning immune system

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CHRONIC STRESS- KIECOLT-GLASER A02

:)

  • supporting evidence, Riley's mice- inject cancerious cells, some stress made walk rotating timetable 10 mins per hour per day. after 3 days stressed mice more likely produce tumours than no stress. Stress reduce immunity= illness. Back up Kiecolt-Glaser
  • practical applicaitons- improve quality some people's lives, avoid stress and danger
  • high ecological validity- natural experiment= PPs natural environment, no demand characterisitics, apply findings real situations

:( 

  • reseach= REDUCTIONIST. Evans et al claim too simple say stress impair immune S functioning, effects on parts. Individual measures state immune S vary types of stress- OVERSIMPLISITC
  • sample bias- matched pairs= more carers married and non-smokers than PPs, both vairabls= low stress (social support, smoking= bad immune functioning) NOT GENERALISABLE
  • nat exp- can't establish cause & effects. Immune S may be genetics, personality types, home life etc
  • small sampe- volunteer- motives?
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CHRONIC STRESS CAUSES- LIFE CHANGES

  • major life event= significant event cause change way live daily lives, disrupt normal routine
  • normal routin= disrupted, more netal energy 'psychic energy', more thought needed= exhaustion, less able cope
  • mismatched perceived ability cope with perceived demands= stress
  • negative of positive
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CHRONIC STRESS CAUSES- LIFE CHANGES- RAHE

  • Holmes & Rahe: SRRS scale (social reajustment rating scale) based 43 life events analysis 50 patient records

RAHE ET AL

  • military version SSRS men, 3 navy cruisers, 2700 men
  • fill questionnaire before tour of duty, notal all life events over 6 months
  • illness score calculated number & severity illnesses recorded over TOD
  • positive correlation life changes unit score and illness score= +0.118. Although not strong, given amount of PPs very significant
  • hypothesis= positive correlation life C's and illness
  • LCs= stress stress= illness
  • change rather than negativity important

:( BIAS GROUP, PERSONAL DIFFERENCES

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SSRS A02

:(

  • no account individual perceive events- ignores diff events diff significance diff people, individual perceptions alter
  • reasearch SSRS suggest any life event damage health due to reajustment needed BUT some critics= quality of event, undesired/uncontrollable= most harmful
  • research data= correlational- cannot establish cause & effect EV variables- only 2 co-variables, ignore personality, social support etc
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CHRONIC STRESS CAUSES- HASSLES AND UPLIFTS

  • life events= infrequent
  • daily life hassles= better measure
  • DeLongis et al measure life events scale with own daily hassles scale see which better predictor later health problems
  • also consider uplifts
  • PPS complete 4 questionnaires once a month 1 year (longitudunal)
  • hassles scale (117 hassles, losing things, crimes etc)
  • uplifts scale (135 uplifts, recreation)
  • life events questionnaire (24 major life events)
  • health status questionnaire- health status, bodily symptoms enegery levels
  • 100 PPs San Francisco 45-64
  • well educated, high income
  • frequency & intensity hassles significantly correlated overall health status & bodily symptoms
  • daily uplifts little effect health
  • no relationship health and life events
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CHRONIC STRESS CAUSES- HASSLES AND UPLIFTS- DELONG

:)

  • stronger association daily hassles & illness than life events & illness, hassles= more useful predictor of health
  • good insight into daily hassles

:(

  • problems SSRS also same with daily hassles scale, correlational- hard prove cause and effect
  • individual differences way interpret daily hassles- lack generalisability
  • retorspective- reflect on occurance, when ill more likely to over-report negative events and under-report positive ones, inaccurate memories/repressions
  • original sample people over 45, sample bias, affect results
  • cultural bias/limitations- all San Fran, lack generalisability
  • low population validity, age bias 45-64, well educated, high income, lack generalisability
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HASSLES AND UPLIFTS SCALE

  • hassles= irritants, annoy/bother you, upset or angry
  • uplifts= events make feel good, joyful, happy, satisfied
  • some rare some regular, day to day life 
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WORKPLACE STRESS - JOHANSSON

  • investigate role control plays causing stress in workplace
  • relate stress to physical health
  • sample finishers END production line Swedish sawmill
  • little control rate of production, most likely stressed
  • recorded level of stress hormones during work days & rest days, looked absenteeism
  • finishers work days= stressful, little control rate of production/ speed of line, yet they responsible wages whole sawmill
  • phsyical stress- noisy environ
  • high levels adrenaline work days, took more days off than control group cleaners
  • lots of stressors= stress= illness
  • rotate job responsibilities around mill stress levels reduced finishers
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WORKPLACE STRESS - JOHANSSON A02

:)

  • supporting evidence MARMOT, 7000 civil service, lower status jobs less control over work, result- more likely heart disease than those in higher jobs. BACKED UP lack of control causing stress
  • practical applications- factos like control important may be possible reduce stress .e.g job rotation etc. Can improve some people's quality of life

:(

  • opposing evidence- BAYNARD- many factors cause stress @ work not just lack of control- e.g reptitive boring jobs, low income difficult exact features causing stress. May be incorrect- oversimplification of stress
  • doesn't take into account individual differences, deal with stress differently, some thrive pressure others don't, not everyone experience stress as 'finisher' in same way, OVERGENERALISATION
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WORKPLACE STRESS - MARMOT

  • longitudinal study
  • 7000 civil servants complete questionnaire on workload, job control & social support received from others
  • check signs of cardiovasular disorder
  • 5 years later- PPs reassessed see if health status had changed
  • workload- no link high workload and stress illness, workload not siginificant factor
  • control- civial servants higher grade develop fewer cardiovascular diseases lower grades= most, higher= more control over work & social support, lower= less
  • CONTROL AND SOCIAL SUPPORT MODERATE IMPACT STRESS
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WORKPLACE STRESS- MARMOT A02

:)

  • large sample size
  • longitudunal study- 5 years accounts for all hassles, overtime more confidence in results

:(

  • individual differences
  • people respond differently to levels of control
  • correlational analysis- cannot establish cause and effect, differences: lifestyle, genetics etc can cause stress
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TYPE A PERSONALITY

  • Freidman & Rosenman

Three characteristics:

1. competitiveness & acheivement striving

2. impatience, time urgency

3. hostility & aggressiveness

lead raise blood pressure increase stress hormone levels

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FREIDMAN & ROSENMAN- TYPE A RESEARCH

  • natural experiment, structured interview
  • assess personality 3000 men 39-59, assess way men respond everyday pressures
  • A or B
  • 8.5 years later twice as many (12%) those Type A had died cardiovascular problems than not A's (type Bs only 6%)
  • A also higher blood pressure/ cholesterol
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FREIDMAN & ROSENMAN- TYPE A RESEARCH A02

:(

  • Ragland  Brand- follow-up, 22 years later 15% men died cardiovascular problem, no relationship between A & death from cardiovascular
  • lack generlisability- 3000 men
  • cultural bias - California
  • age bias 39- 59
  • ethics- protection PPs, didn't provide education intervene... However, natural causes

:)

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HARDY PERSONALITY

  • people differ ability resist stressor's effects
  • resist stress= hardiness (KOBASA)
  • higher hardiness= healthier even if stress levels similar less hardy

Hardy individuals:

1. Commitment, more direction lives, tackle tasks- want to, oraganised, plenty of time

2. Challenge- interpret stress as make life more interesting- devote time & energy want to achieve

3. Control- regulate stress, in charge of lives, aquire knowledge do well

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PHYSIOLOGICAL: BENZODIAZAPINES

  • anti-anexiety drugs, dampen/slow down CNS- Diazepam

GABA:

  • GABA= neurotransmitter body's natural for manxiety relief, 40% neurons brain respond GABA, when released 'quietening' effect neurons
  • react GABA receptors in membrane post-synaptic cell
  • GABA lock on receptors opens channel
  • increase flow chloride ions into neurons
  • chrlodie make harder neurons to be stimulated other neurotransmitters (excitation)
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BETA BLOCKERS

  • reduce activity adrenaline/ noradrenaline
  • beind receptor sites of heart & other parts body normally stimulated during sympathetic arousal
  • make it harder activate post-synaptic cells
  • message does not get the body to react to the stress
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PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS MANAGEMENT: STRESS INOCULATIO

  • cognitive behavioural therapy
  • stress arise interpretation events- perceive threatening & not resources deal adequately= stress response
  • cognitive representation of event, not environment itself, determines stress response
  • MEICHENBAUM- STRESS INOCLUATION THERAPY
  • catastrophise
  • aims train people cope effectively potential stress situations

1. Cognitive preperation- ways stressful situation thought about 'I can't handle this' make it worse

2. Skill aquisition & rehersal- replace negative self-statements with positive. Learned & practicied

3. Application & follow through- guide person progressively more stressful situations

moderate then more difficult

'power positive thinking' effective behaviour change- relaxtion & anxiety

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STRESS INOC- MEICHENBAUM STUDY- EXAMS

  • investigate effectivenss SIT
  • study anxious pre-exam college students
  • quasi- experimental method
  • 3 conditons: 1. 8 weks SIT, 2. 8 weeks systematic dispensation 3. no therapy- waiting list
  • efficiency SIT evaluated exam performance & self-reports
  • perfom & felt well in exam= SIT work
  • SIT group most positive self-reports, out-performed others, waiting list= anxious
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STRESS INOC- MEICHENBAUM STUDY- EXAMS A02

:)

  • target stress directly, identify stress develop effecitve techniques deal with it
  • benefits of SIT long term, deal directly stressors teaches ways handling stress may appear in future
  • SIT= flexible, cognitive methods, consider needs individual can tailor persons specific situation

:(

  • self-reports not always reliable- may not have worked
  • SIT not easy, quick, cheap, clients have to motivated openly discuss experiences, practice stress management techniques confront stressor
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Comments

MrsMacLean

thanks for these, they are very comprehensive 

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