Social and Economic Impact

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Young People

Youth movements helped produce commited Nazis.

  • For Nazis to remain strong- youth loyalty was essential
  • Youth movements- taught children Nazi ideas
  • Propaganda- young people would be more successful
  • Hitlers Youth- founded in 1926
  • Boys 14+ were recruited
  • 1936- compulsory
  • Hitler Youth became part of the SA
  • Promising boys- sent to Hitlers schools- trained to lead
  • Wore military styled uniform, trained- prepared for war- many joined the army
  • Girls 14-18 joined the League of German Maidens
  • Trained- domestic skills, cooking & sewing
  • Sometimes- camping & hiking
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Young People

  • Reich Youth leader introduced- 1933 & youth movements increased in importance
  • Second World War- Hitler Youth contributed to war effort (eg. farm work, collecting donations of Nazi charities etc)

Nazis took over in Schools and Universities.

  • Learning Nazis propaganda
  • No jewish people could teach
  • Most teachers- joined 'Nazi Teacher Association'- trained in Nazi methods
  • Children- report teachers who didn't use them
  • Subjects rewritten to fit with Nazi ideas
  • Taught to be anti- Semitic- lost war because of communists & Jews
  • Physcial education became more important for boys- war games with live ammunition
  • Universities- students burned anti Nazi & Jewish books- jewish lecturers were sacked
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Women and the Church

Women were expected to raise large families.

  • Nazis wanted little freedom for women
  • Role- support families at home & provide children
  • League of German Maidens- spread idea- honour to produce large families- given awards for doing so
  • School- studied cookery
  • Should marry an Aryan husband
  • Banned from being lawyers- 1936 & Nazis tried to stop them folowing other professions
  • Shortage of workers- 1937- more women had to go back to work

The Nazis saw the Church as a threat.

  • Many Nazis- against Christianity- peace- incompatible with Nazis ideas
  • But, didn't want to risk an immediate attack
  • Hitler- signed agreement with Catholic Church- 1933- promised not to interfer with each other
  • However some Catholic protest against Nazi policies
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Women and the Church

  • Hitler- tried to unite different Protestant Churches- one Reich Church
  • Placed Nazi Bishop Ludwig at its head
  • Some churches split off in protest- formed the Confessing Church
  • Clergy who stood up to Nazis regime- concentration camps

Most Church members supported the Nazis.

  • Little opposition from Christian groups because- stopped spread of communism- hostile to religion
  • Number of church members- opposed Nazis
  • Martin Niemoller- Lutheran minister objected to interference & one of founders of confessing Church- 1937 used sermon to protest against persecution of Church members- concentration camp
  • Clemens August von Galen- Catholic Bishop of Munster- used sermons to protest (euthanasia of disabled & Nazis racial policies)- need to maintain support of German catholics- prevented execution
  • Dietrich Bonhoeffer- Lutheran theologian & pastor- opposed from start- joined resistance- helped Jews escape & plotted to kill Hitler. Caught & spent 1 year in prision- then executed
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Economic Growth under the Nazis

Hitler gave work to millions of unemployed.

  • Huge programmes of public works- gave thousands of jobs
  • From 1933- Auto Bahns (huge motorways)- unemployment fell dramatically
  • However- Nazis- fiddled with statistics- unemployment look lower
  • eg. Didn't count women or Jewish people- invisible unemployment

People were encouraged to work by rewards.

  • Men 18-25yrs could be recruited- National Labour Service- given jobs
  • Got rid of trade unions- had to join Labour Front
  • 'Strength through Joy' programme- provided cheap holidays & activities 
  • 'Beauty of Labour'- factory owners- improve conditions for workers
  • Output increase & unemployment almost ended
  • Volkswagen (the people's car)- ambition for people to aim for
  • Wages still low & workers weren't allowed to strike or campaign
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Economic Growth under the Nazis

The new plan made Germany more self sufficient.

  • Industrial growth- buying more raw materials abroad
  • Importing more than exporting- economic problems
  • Schacht (Minister of economy)- brought in the new plan 1934
  • Strictly control imports & encourage exports- more self sufficient
  • Porduction increased & unemployment fell
  • Schacht resigned- felt increased focus on weapons production was damaging the economy
  • Control of the economy fell to Goring

Hitler re-armed the German Military

  • Built up army secretly- breaking treaty
  • Hitler- sacked some generals & replaced them with Nazi suporters
  • Goring was in charge of Luftwaffe (air force)
  • 1935- military conscription was introduced
  • 1936- four year plan- prepare for war- industrial production increased
  • Trying to be self sufficient but- 1939- stil imported 1/3 of its raw materials
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A Social Revolution

The Nazis hoped to change German Society completely.

  • Policies- affected many aspects- education, working conditions & law 
  • Big impact on attitudes & treatment of social groups
  • Propaganda- spread ideas that society was chaning
  • Portrayed themselves- defying treaty- taking pride back
  • Economic recovery 1930- seemed like lives were improving
  • Volksgemeinschaft- perfect community- working hard for the same aims- seemed attractive to a lot of people

The Nazis didn't change every aspect of German Society.

  • Changes- not so deep
  • Propaganda- things seemed greater than they were
  • Wasn't necessary to join Nazis 
  • Some parents didn't want children joining Hitler Youth
  • Many resisted propaganda- dangerous
  • Health reforms- Weimar Republic- Nazis said they did it
  • Nazis discriminated 
  • Still strong social divisions despite Volksgemeinschaft 
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A Social Revolution

Many groups in society felt better off.

  • Nazis- focused on gaining support of workers (eg. 'Stengthen through joy')
  • Value of Germany's production went from 58,000 million marks in 1932 to 93,000 million marks in 1937
  • Small business owners- able to advance- appealed to middle class
  • BUT- workers & small business owners weren't really better off
  • Cost of living rose- 25%
  • Wages didn't go up
  • Trade unions were banned, as was the right to strike or resign
  • Small businesses had to pay high taxes
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Impact of the Second World War

The Nazi economy had to prepare for the Second World War.

  • 1936- Goring put in charge of economy 
  • Aim- Germany more self sufficient
  • Hitler combined economic & military policy- being geared for war
  • Four year plan- 1936- concentrated on war preparations
  • Workers- retrained in jobs- help war effort (eg. producing weapons)

The Outbreak of War forced changes in the economy.

  • Start- economy wasn't ready
  • Production for war increase- expense of domestic goods
  • Nazis needed- build up weapon & chemical industries & increase agricultural output
  • Outbreak- 1/4 workforce focused on weapons. 2yrs later 1/3- working hours increased
  • Production- inefficient- took raw materials from East (occupied) & used slave labour
  • 1942- Albert Speer- in charge of war economy
  • By focussing completely on war effort & increasing efficiency- increased weapons production
  • Allied bombing was taking its toll on industry
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Impact of the Second World War

The outbreak of War had a dramatic effect on Society.

  • At first- civilians didn't suffer badly
  • Did have to make sacrifices- longer hours & lower wages
  • Foreign workers brought into Germany
  • Business people resented outbreak of War- rationing of clothing & food (1939)
  • Women & Children had to work- 1941- forces doing badly in Russia
  • Civilians - being killed by allied bombing raids
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