- Created by: sophie98campbell
- Created on: 21-06-17 15:07
Types of qualities + characteristics seen as appropriate for each sex. Females traditionally nurturing, co-operative, domestic, emotional, passive etc. Males traditionally strong, independent, physical, aggresive + nonemotional.
Taught from early age eg way genders handled. Ways portrayed in media powerful sources sex-role stereotypes.
Co-existence of male + female characteristics w/in the same person.
Olds (1981) believed androgyny higher developmental stage only reached by some, Bem (1983) argued androgynous people have diff cognitive style + adopt behaviours when necessary, are independent from gender concepts. In terms of cognitive schema theory, androgynous people are gender aschematic (not influenced by sex-role stereotypes.
Orlofsky - behavioural explanation - learned through reinforcement, allows to acquire masc + fem qualities applicable to diff situations.
Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI)
Bem (1975), self-report measure of masc-fem + gender role. Developed angrogyny hypothesis, saw androgyny as desirable + pos. BSRI designed to measure androgyny. 60 items, 7 point scale. 20 relate to masc, 20 to fem, 20 gender neutral. Revised in 1977 for 4 categories:
1) Masc - high masc, low fem
2) Fem - low masc, high fem
3) Androgynous - high masc, high fem
4) Undifferentiated - low masc, low fem
Sex-role stereotypes - Strengths
Eccles et al - reported children encouraged by parents to play w/ gender-typical toys, supported idea parents reinforce sex-role stereotypes.
Sex-role stereotypes differ across cultures, suggests culturally transmitted, implies learning exp strong than bio forces.
Sex-role stereotypes - Weaknesses
Egs of stereotypes over-emphasised.
Media subjected to critcism of presentation of sex roles, portrayals become less stereotyped - but some still sterotyped, harmful effects.
Androgyny - Strengths
Bem used BSRI to measure androgyny, 34% males + 27% females androgynous, suggests sizeable minority predominately androgynous.
BSRI good test-retest reliability as consistent results when used on diff occasions w/ same participants.
Androgyny - Weaknesses
No explanation given as to why androgyny only occurs in some individuals, or how even tho Olds states it's a higher stage of development.
Reducing masc + dem down to single scores over-simplistic.
Cultural bias - what's defined as masc + fem differ b/ween cultures, may make some appear androgynous in Western culture when either masc or fem in their own culture.