SCHIZOPHRENIA

ü Sim et al- studies of Schiz patients, 32% of whom had a depressive disorder, found those with Comorbidity had less awareness of their condition, has implication for reliability, e.g.- is the lack of motivation found in a patient a result of SCH or the depressive disorder,

ü Cultural bias- effects reliability- Harrison et al- over diagnosis of sch in west Indian psychiatric patients in Bristol may be because the symptoms of ethnic minority patient can display the symptoms but receive different diagnosis, because of their background

ü However evidence for cultural bias in unconvincing, may be that there are genuine difference in rates of incidence, the more stressful lives experienced by many ethnic minority groups and those from a working class background may account for the higher rates ,Research suggests working class individuals more likely to be diagnosed, than middle class,

ü schizotypal personality disorder- SPD- sufferers have mild form of several symptoms of schiz, blurred boundaries between these 2 different diagnosis’s, reduces the reliability with which schiz is diagnosed

ü R and V- labelling- Rosenhan- conducted study where people with no mental health problem got into psychiatric unit saying heard voices, once admitted behaved normally, however behaviour was still seen as a symptom, questions validity of the diagnosis, once people are labelled as suffering all behaviour is seen as being caused by the disorder

ü Content validity – extent to which an assessment covers the range of symptoms of sch, all of an individuals symptoms should be gathered during an assessment, however most forms of assessment for the diagnosis cover all symptoms associated with the disorder and other related disorders

ü Criterion validity- assessment is high in criterion validity when those diagnosed differ in

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SCHIZOHERNIA

  • Sim et al- studies of Schiz patients, 32% of whom had a depressive disorder, found those with Comorbidity had less awareness of their condition, has implication for reliability, e.g.- is the lack of motivation found in a patient a result of SCH or the depressive disorder,
  • Cultural bias- effects reliability- Harrison et al- over diagnosis of sch in west Indian psychiatric patients in Bristol may be because the symptoms of ethnic minority patient can display the symptoms but receive different diagnosis, because of their background
  • However evidence for cultural bias in unconvincing, may be that there are genuine difference in rates of incidence, the more stressful lives experienced by many ethnic minority groups and those from a working class background may account for the higher rates ,Research suggests working class individuals more likely to be diagnosed, than middle class,
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  • schizotypal personality disorder- SPD- sufferers have mild form of several symptoms of schiz, blurred boundaries between these 2 different diagnosis’s, reduces the reliability with which schiz is diagnosed
  • R and V- labelling- Rosenhan- conducted study where people with no mental health problem got into psychiatric unit saying heard voices, once admitted behaved normally, however behaviour was still seen as a symptom, questions validity of the diagnosis, once people are labelled as suffering all behaviour is seen as being caused by the disorder
  • Content validity – extent to which an assessment covers the range of symptoms of sch, all of an individuals symptoms should be gathered during an assessment, however most forms of assessment for the diagnosis cover all symptoms associated with the disorder and other related disorders
  • Criterion validity- assessment is high in criterion validity when those diagnosed differ in predictable ways from those not diagnosed with having it(less likely to hold down a job), most forms of assessment process reasonable criterion validity, research has found that nearly 3% of those divorced/separated have been diagnosed, could be argued though that individuals suffering any mental disorders are more likely to experience relationship problems
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  • Construct validity- if diagnosed person supports a hypothesis made about the disorder, the assessment said to be high in construct validity, diagnosis of schiz is generally high in construct validity due to the consistency high support for the genetic hypothesis
  • Predictive validity- refers to the ability to predict patients eventual outcomes in the basis of the diagnosis they receive, while the DSM required disturbance for 6 months + ICD is only a month, the problem with the 1 month criteria is that many individuals with a brief experience never experience it again still classified as being schizophrenic
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