The Influence of Rasputin
The Influence of Rasputin
-His wild life style added to the unpopulaity of Tsar's family.
-Known for drunk, sexual exploits.
-Common knowledge to Russian people at the time.
-Killed on a night in Deceber 1916
-Had the ability to control the life threatning illness- Haemophillia (The Alexis Tsar's son had).
-Powerful and infulencial on the country (He could after a while choose government ministers).
The Febuary Revolution
The Febuary Revolution
14th Feb- President of the Duma informed Nicholas that he could no longer rely on his closest supporters in Petrograd.
23rd Feb- International Women's Day saw women joined by striking workers protest against food shortages in Petrograd.
... the protest increased over the next few days until over 250,000 workers were on strike.
-26th Febuary- The Tsar orders the army to fire on the protestors (instead the soldiers join the protests).
27th Febuary- Tsar attempts to return to Petrograd but his train is stopped and he is forced to abdicate.
-He and is family are placed undr house arrest.
-Petrograd Soviet released a new newspaper and declared the intentions to remove the old system of government.
-Tsar's autocrat rule is replaced by the Provisional Government.
-However they have to share power with the Petrograd Soviet.
Provisional Government= Authority without power.
Petrograd Soviet= Power without authority.
-The Petrograd Soviets represented the workers in Petrograd.
-The Provisional Government were made up of members from the Duma.
-Alexander Kerensky was members of both and he acted as a bridge between them.
Decisions of the Provisional Government
1) Continure the war=
Russia continued to be defeated by German advance.
-Further loss of life and food shortages.
-Soldiers began to desert.
2) Land ownership=
Peasants wanted to own more land.
-Provisonal government decided to wait until elections were held.
-So peasants took land illegally by force.
April 3rd 1917
-April 3rd 1917 Lenin (Leader of the Bolsheviks) returns from exile.
-Germans decide to help Lenin return from exile in Switzerland, in the hope that hewould overthrow the new government of Russia.
-He makes and important speech to the Bolsheviks called the 'April Theses'
Terms of the April Theses
1) The war with Germany had to end.
2) Powerhad to pass from the middle classes to the working classes.
3) All land had to be given to the peasants.
4) The police, army and bureaucracy should be abolished.
5) The capitalist system had to be overthrown by the workers- banks factories and transport should be nationalised.
6) The Bolsheviks should take control of the soviets in order to acheive their aims. The slogan 'all power to the soviets' became the watch word.
Bolsheviks and Mensheviks= SOVIETS
-Following the Failures in the war, deserting soldiers, Kronstadt sailors and Bolsheviks attempted to overthrow the Provisional Government in Petrograd.
-Kerensky (As Minister of War) set in troops to break up the demonstations.
-As a result of this Kerensky took over as Prime Minister.
-Lenin is forced to flee to Finland.
-Lenin and other Bolsheviks accused of being German spies due to the events of the April theses.
-This gave the impression that the Bolsheviks chance to seize power had gone.
-Party was in decline.
-General Kornilov leads a section of the army to try and ovethrow the Provisional Government.
-Kerensky could not use the army to defend Petrograd so gave guns to the Bolsheviks to help him.
-A strike by the railways stopped Kornilov's troops from reaching Petrograd.
-Bolsheviks refuse to hand back their guns.
-Bolsheviks seen as heroes= increase in popularity.
-Railway workers (Soviets) stopped the publication of newspapers that supported the 'Coup d'etat'
-Army was no longer in the position to set up military dictatorship.
-Kerensky looked weak because it was clear that the Bolsheviks had saved the Provisional Government.
-This benefited Lenin so he made plans to return from exile in Finland (planning a Bolshevik take over)
MOST IMPORTANT PART OF THIS EVENT WA THE ARMING OF THE BOLSHEVIKS.
-Lenin return from exile in October 1917.
-He convinces the Bolsheviks that the time is right to carry out a revolution.
-The Red guards led by Trotsky took control of key points in Petrograd e.g. railway stations and bridges.
-25th October a cruiser (The Aurora) fired blank shells at the Winter Palace.
-The red guards stormed the winter palace and met little opposition.
-It was a BLOODLESS COUP.
-Bolsheviks now in control of Russia.
The October Revolution- Extra.
-In order to remove Bolshevik threat Kernesky closed down Bolshevik newspapers (The Pravada) and rounded up leading Bolsheviks.
-Bolsheviks were forced into action due to this and Lenin ordered the start of the revolution.
-Actions of the day had ended in 6 deaths and 18 arrests.
-Along with the complete collapse of the Provisional Government.
The Bolsheviks take power.
- At the All Russian Congress of Soviets the Bolsheviks had 390 seats (a huge majority).
- 26th of October Lenin formed a government called the 'council of people commissors'.
(Made of Bolsheviks).
-Trotsky was the commissar of foreign affairs.
-Stalin was the commissar of nationalities.