Reasons to Believe in God
* Religious Upbringing; Faith school, Church, Worship, Baptism, Prayer
l---> The influence of authority figures make us more likely to believe in God (parents, teachers)
Religious Experience; Miracle, Numinous experience, Aunswered prayers, Near-death exerience, conversion
Causaton Argument - 'The Kalam Argument'
l---> Everything has a cause -> The universe had a cause -> God was that cause
* Design Argument
l---> William Paley - 'The Watch'
l---> Complexity and purpose require intelligence
Reasons for Atheism
* Scientific Explanations for Origins of the World
l---> Science can explain the existance of he universe without the need for God
l---> e.g. The Big Bang Theory, Theory of Evolution (explains the complexity of the universe)
* Evil and Suffering
l---> If God exists, he would be Omnipotent and omnibenelovent - he would want to/ know how to get rid of evil.
l---> The inconsistent Triad
* Unanswered Prayers
l---> Doubt God's existance
* Non-Religious Upbringing - Not surrounded by influential authority figures who believe in God.
Christian Responses to Atheism
* Science and God --> The is no conflict
l---> The Big Bang Theory supports belief in God as it shows that the universe had a cause. Partly discovered by Lemaitre - a Priest.
* Evil and Suffering
l---> There is no inconsistency if we assume that God has reasons for allowing evil and suffering.
l---> Suffering helps us to develop moral virtues and see the good in life. It also gives us a chance to be loving and charitable.
l---> Good can sometimes come from suffering (The Bible teaches the story of Joseph).
* Unanswered Prayers
l---> God can't answer all prayers (some prayers conflict eachother)
l---> God doesn't answer selfish prayers that only help one person
l---> Some prayers would interfere with other people's free-will
l---> God does answer all prayers, but sometimes the answer is "no"
Christian Beliefs in Life after Death
Imortality of the Soul
Judgement - When someone dies they face an immediate judgement that decides their eternal fate (Heaven or Hell)
* Salvation and Forgiveness of Sins - "All have sinned and fallen short of the glory of God"
- By dying, Jesus opened the way to Heaven and offered forgiveness to all.
- To receive salvation and be sent to Heaven; 1) Repent, 2) Believe in God
- Those who deliberately reject God will go to Hell.
* Ressurection of the Body - All the living and the dead will be given new spiritual body
* Catholics believe in Purgatory - Nothing impure can enter Heaven, thereofre all sins must be purged before arrival in a purrifying fire.
Why Christians Believe in Life after Death
* The ressurection of Jesus
* The New Testament - Constantly affirm the existence of life after death
l---> Refers to Heaven and Hell
l---> The Apostles Creed; "I believe in the ressurection of the body and the life everlasting"
How do these Beliefs affect their Lives?
- Encourages them to keep their faith through perseverence
- Gives them hope, as death is not the end of life
- Encourages them to love God by showing devotion
- Reminds them to be humble - since all Christians have sinned, it reminds then not to be proud if they're going to Heaven
Different Beliefs about Life after Death
* Non-Religious Reasons for Life fter Death
- Near-death experiences - (10-20% reported a NDE)
- Evidence of the paranormal - Mediums, ghosts
- Evidence for Reincarnation - Deja Vu
* Reasons against Life after Death
- Lack of credible evidence - Not convincing enough
- Belief in materialism - Nothing more than the pysical world
What does the Law say about Abortion?
* A woman can have an abortion if 2 doctors agree it can be justified on 1 of the 7 grounds in the Abortion Act 1976
Arguments Against Abortion (Pro-life)
- Life begins at concption
- Deliberatey killing a human being is wrong
- Adoption is an alternative option
- Even those with disabilities have the right to life
Arguments For Abortion (Pro-choice)
- Women have the right to choose - it is their body
- If abortion is illegal, people will turn to dangerous backstreet clinics
- It is kinder to the child if the baby is severly disabled
- Abortion may be the lesser of two evils
Christian Attitudes to Abortion
- Sanctity of Life - All life is sacred
- Abortion is Murder - Goes against the Ten Commandments
- Only has God has the right to take life
- Sometimes abortion is the most loving action to do
- Best choice if the mother is at risk
- Arguments For Euthanasia
* Allows the patient to die a gentle, pain-free death
* Patient dies with dignity
* Saves medical costs
* Relieves a family burden
* Medical staff can focus on those with a chance of recovery
* Every person should chose their time of death
- Arguments Against Euthanasia
* Doctors can misdiagnose
* Some may be preassurised into chosing euthanasia
* Patient may be in the wrong state of mind
Christian Attitudes to Euthanasia
Attitudes for Euthanasia
- God gave us free-will to make our own choices
- God intends people to have a good quality of life
- Lesser of two evils
Attitudes against Euthanasia
- Goes against the Sanctity of Life
- Only God has the right o take away life
- Suffering is a test of faith and a part of life
Attitudes to Marriage and the Family
Why are Attitudes to Marriage Changing?
- People are more tollerant of change
- The Church has less influence
- Decline in traditional family values
- Socially acceptable to cohabit
Christian Attitudes to Marriage
- "It is not good...to be alone" - Genesis 2:18, 24
- God created man and woman for eachother
- Marriage is unittve and creative.
Attitudes to Sex outside Marriage
Christaian Attitudes For Sex outside Marriage
- It is acceptable is two people intend to get married
- It allows two people to ensure they are confident about eachother before they commit
Christian Attitudes Against Sex outside Marriage
- The Bible says sex is for marriage parteners
- Makes people vulnerable to STIs
- Sex was God's gift to procreate, and if children are cncieved outside of marriage, they are likely to have a less stable family life
- Addultery if forbidden
Christian Attitudes to Divorce
Reasons for Divorce; Adultery, Unreasonable Behaviour, Desertion
Attitudes For Abortion
- People can make mistakes
- God forgives sins
- Divorce is wrong, but can be the lesser of two evils
Attitudes Against Abortion
- Jesus sadi divorce is wrong
- Marriage is intended to be for life
- Divorce breaks the promises made to God
Reasons for Changing Attitudes to Divorce - Easier to obtain, Less religion, socially acceptable
Christian Attitudes to Homosexuality
Christian Attitudes For Homosexuality
- Some Christians believe homosexuality is perfectly natural
- All humans are equal in the eyes of God
- The world is God's creation, so, if homosexuality exists, God must have intended for it to
Christian Attitudes Against Homosexuality
- Marriage was intended by God to be between a man and a woman
- Same sex couples can not have sex naturally
- Homosexuality undermines the family unit
- The Bible teaches homosexuality is wrong
How Have Attitudes to Family Life Changed?
- The rise in divorce and pre-marital sex have led to an increase in single-parent families
- More children are being brought up in cohabiting families
- Reconstituded families are more common
- Incease in promiscuity has led to high teenage pregnancy rates
- Increase in contraception mean it is more acceptable for families not to have children
- Legalisation of abortion has seen a decrease in family sizes
Christian Attitudes to Contraception
Christian Attitudes For Contraception
- Using contraception is not a sin
- Sex is not just for procreation
- Contraception can be used to help family planning
- Contraception prevents the spread of STIs
Christian Attitudes Against Contraception
- Artificial contraception is morally wrong
- Contraception may encourage promiscuity
- Sex was agift from God for procreation