Religion & State Keywords
Duty: something a person is expected to do because it's the law or part of a contract, eg - keep laws of the land.
Justice: where everyone has equal rights and opportunities, eg - human rights.
Human Rights: basic entitlement of every human being, what people are expected to have, eg - declaration of human rights.
Authority: someone/something with power over others, eg Bible for Christians.
Personal Conviction: something a person feels strongly about, eg - feelings strongly that everyone deserves human rights.
Punishment: ways to make someone suffer as a result of wrongdoings, eg - deter them so they don't do it again.
Religion & Conflict Keywords
Conflict: clashes and breakdown of relationships, eg - fighting.
Interfaith Dialogue: exploring common grounds between different faith groups, eg - Corrymeela.
Just War: a war that can be justified according to certain conditions, eg - a good cause.
Paficism: belief that any form of violence/war is unacceptable, eg - refusing to fight in wars.
Non-Violent Protest: showing disapproval without damaging property or using violence, eg - marching/petitions.
Reconciliation: making up and apologising after a dispute and working together again, eg - forgiveness.
How can Peace be made and kept?
UN - Organisation set up in 1945 to promote peace international security.
Ecumenically - where there's conflict within a religion and people work to resolve these issues.
Interfaith - where there's conflict between different religions and people work to resolve these differences.
Ecumenical Centre (Corrymeela) - aims to build peaceful relations between Protestants and Catholics in N. Ireland and also works around the world helping others who are experiencing problems due to divisions.
Corrymeela: main aim is reconciliation and provides safe environment for dialogue between communities.
What is the Nature of Suffering?
Moral - refers to suffering humans chose to do with their free will.
Natural - refers to events of nature like earthquakes, floods, etc. They are evils we have no control over and not products of human will.
What is the Purpose of Suffering?
Fate: our lives were planned and suffering we endure/cause was always going to happen.
Freewill: we make our own choices in life and some people make bad choices against their conscience so suffering occurs.
Religious Viewpoints on Freewill & Fate
- God gave all humans freewill and they have the choice to do good or evil. With God's help, they can overcome evil.
- Through confession and forgiveness, you can amend for bad choices.
- Don't believe in fate.
- All good actions come from Allah and all bad ones come from man so people can co-operate with Allah and do good or go against Allah and choose evil.
- Don't believe in fate but believe that actions are predestined but personal responsibility for the actions is still applied - you need to co-operate with Allah.
Religious Viewpoint on Suffering
- Suffering and evil exist due to issue of free will.
- God made perfect world.
- Idea of free will and disobedience is shown in Book of Genesis (the Fall).
- God gave us freedom to make our own choices (free will).
- If people follow his teachings and listen to their conscience, we will achieve everlasting life.
- Suffering occurs when people turn their backs on God.
Christian Support for Suffering
- Community where people with and without learning disabilities live and work.
- Offers accommodation, care and support.
- Offer opportunities for people with learning disabilities to take part in range of craft activities.
- Spirituality encompasses prayer, pilgrimages, singing, shared meals, celebration and reflection time.
- Catholic Agency for Overseas Development
- Follows teachings of Jesus to love each other.
- People can help by donating money, etc. - Christians believe when they do this, they also help God as there's a part of God in everyone and that suffering can be reduced through good will and faith in action.
Islam Minimising Suffering
- Following 5 pillars - through prayer (Salah) and giving to charity (Zakah).
- Muslim charity which helps people in need, especially in times of disaster.
- Provide water, sanitation, health, nutrition, education, employment, training and emergency relief.
- Muslims believe Allah made everything as part of the Ummah (worldwide Muslim community), they have a duty to care for others.
- Zakah - Muslims donate 2.5% of wages to charity.
- Sadaqah - Muslims give gift of money and time to help others.
The Just War Theory
- Designed to stop Chirsitans feeling guilty for going to warm - makes war justifiable by meeting certain conditions.
- Developed by St. Thomas Aquinas.
Must meet conditions as follows:
- War must be started by government.
- Must be a good reason to justify amount of death.
- End result must be peace.
- Should be last resort.
- Methods must be fair for both sides.
- Innocent people's lives should be spared.
- No nuclear weapons.