Formation - Filter model AO1
- The model suggests that individuals have a field of available, which are single people we could possibly form a romantic relationship with.
- The first stage considers the similarity of social availables which determines who we are most likely to meet and who will be easy to communicate with, identified through social status.
- The second stage considers psychological characteristics which requires each other to agree on fundamental basic values. This has been identified as the best predictor of whether the relationship becomes stable.
- The final stage which applies to long term couples, and considers complementarity of emotional needs where behaviours exhibited complement each others needs.
- After these three stages a field of desirables is finally reached, where those best suited and could possibly be a potential partner for a future romantic relationship are identified.
Formation - Filter model AO2
(S) The filter model has also been criticised for being deterministic
(E) as it suggests that all romantic relationships are formed in a linear fashion through a series of stages.
(E) Therefore it fails to consider the role of free will and the complexity of human behaviour in that we have the ability to form romantic relationships through other stages and factors. This further reduces the external reliability of the theory as it cannot be sure that it explains the formation of every romantic relationship.
Maintenance - Social Exchange Theory AO1
This outlines the cost-rewards ratio and the comparison level.
The theory suggests that individuals maintain a romantic relationship when benefits identified i.e. sex/affection, out-weight the costs they identify i.e. costs/time.
The theory also suggests that the romantic relationship can be maintained even if unprofitable if the relationship is perceived to be better than past experiences.
This is called the comparison level.
Whilst it also suggests that the romantic relationship can also be maintained even if unprofitable as long as its considered to be better than the alternative relationship on offer.
Maintenance - Social Exchange Theory AO2
(S) There is evidence by Marelich et al (2008) supporting the social exchange theory.
(E) Marelich et al surveyed 267 students in the US and found men were more likely to use blatant lies to have sex with woman, whilst woman are likely to have sex to avoid confrontation. The findings show that both genders avoided costs (confrontation) to receive rewards (sex), which further shows that rewards are favoured in the maintenance of a romantic relationship.
(E) These findings support the theory in that the cost-rewards ratio is taken into account into the maintenance of a romantic relationship, and thus the internal validity of the theory is strengthened.
Breakdown - Rollie and Duck AO1
1)Breakdown- Dissatisfaction of relationship
2)Intra-psychic process- Expresses the dissatisfaction
3)Dyadic process- Confronts partner about feelings
4)Social Process- Tells friends and familys about feelings
5)Grave dressing process- Creates stories to tell about breakdown of relationship
6)Resurrection process- Prepares for future relationships