Regulation of Transcription and Translation

Regulation of Transcription and Translation
- Notes on 3 factors that can affect Transcription and Translation

  • Created by: Abi
  • Created on: 06-06-11 11:38

Transcription Factors affect Target Genes

- Transcription Factors move from the cytoplasm to the nucleus

- In the nucleus they bind to specific DNA sites near the start of target genes.

- They control expression by controlling the rate of transcription

- Some transcription factors called activators, increase the rate of transcription e.g: they help RNA polymerase bind to the start of target gene and activates transcription (Proto-onco genes)

- Other transcription factors, called repressors, decrease the rate of transcription by binding to the start of a gene preventing RNA polymerase from binding, and preventing transcription (Tumor suppressor genes)

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Oestrogen's affect on Transcription of Target Gene

- Oestrogen is a hormone that can affect transcription by binding to a transcription factor called an oestrogen receptor, forming an oestrogen-oestrogen receptor complex.

- The complex moves from the cytoplasm into the nucleus where it binds to specific DNA sites near the start of the target gene.

- The complex can either act as an activator or a repressor. Whether it acts as a repressor or an activator depends on the type of cell and the target gene.

- Therefore, the levels of oestrogen in a particular cell, affects the rate of transcription of target genes.

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