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Religion and Society unit 8 (Christianity and Muslim)

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Religion and Social Responsibility - moral decisio

  • Using the Bible:
  • Its the word of God (absolute authority).
  • Has Gods teachings on how to behave e.g. the decalouge.
  • Has Jesus' teachings on how to live.
  • Records Jesus's actions which christians want to follow.
  • Using the Church:
  • The Church is the Body of Christ.
  • Some think God speaks to the world through Church.
  • By following the Church all belive the same thing.
  • Church authority for Rcs comes from the Magisterium.
  • Using the Conscience:
  • Believe it is God speaking and the Church say you should follow it.
  • St Paul said it should be the last part of the desicion making process.
  • However some people don't use the Conscience.
  • Could be mistaken e.g. yorkshire rippe.r
  • Follow the Church or the Bible means eveyone does the same.
  • Life would be chasos if evryone did their own thing and their was no law.
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Moral decisons continued

  • Using Situation Ethics:
  • Founded by Joseph Fletcher. Should do the most loving in any situation.
  • Jesus acted in a similar way.
  • Should only do things that lead to a good result.
  • Jesus said 'love thy neighbour'.
  • Christianity is a religion based on love.
  • Some don't use it because:
  • Bible is the word of God which shouldn't be over ruled.
  • Christians should all do the same thing.
  • The Church knows whats best.
  • Some people use a variety of sources e.g. use the bible for things like adultery but for issues like contraception may turn to church or conscience.
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Human Rights in the UK

  • Examples - freedom from slavery, freedom from tourture and the right to life.
  • Why Human Rights are important to christians:
  • Right to life is covered by teaching the sanctity of life, (teaching that life is sacred).
  • All humans are made in gods image and are equal.
  • Christians are protected by these laws and so should help protect others.
  • Human rights ban discrimination.
  • Can cause problems for christians because...
  • Some are against civil partnerships which are legal in the uk.
  • Some are against marrying outside their religion.
  • Against homosexuals having a family (adoption).
  • Roman Catholics do not allow women priests which is a form of discrimination. 
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Democratic and Electoral Processes

  • Why should we take part in democratic and electoral process?
  • It gives you some control of what happens in goverment.
  • You get a say in things like schools and NHS.
  • People fought for the right to vote and this should be respected.
  • Christian teachings on moral decisions and resposibilities.
  • Do unto others as you would have them do to you. When voting christians should look at policies and see how they would affect others.
  • Parable of sheep and goat - states you will be judged on how you treat others.
  • Am i my brothers keeper - refers to when cain killed his brother, chrisitians have a duty to anyone in need.
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Nature of genetic engineering and cloning

  • Non religious arguments for:
  • Could lead to cures.
  • Using 'cybrids' doesn't involve loss of human life.
  • Genetic research is monitered closely by law.
  • Some countries already do it.
  • Non-religious against:
  • No infomation on long term consequences.
  • Effects are irreversible.
  • Gives too much power to scientists.
  • Treats the human body as a commodity.
  • Different christian attitudes:
  • Libereal protestants - it cures diseases, jesus was a healer, creating cells not the same as creating new humans.
  • Catholics will it for curing diseases but not for human embryos - killing an embryo is the same as killing a human, life begins at conception.
  • Some are against it - humans shouldn't interfere with gods will, wrong to make the world perfect.
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Religion and the environment - Global warming.

  • Causes of global warming:
  • Greenhouse effect - gases stop heat escaping.
  • Natural climate change - volcanoes and animals.
  • Solar activity - suns radiation warming the earth. Burning fossil fuels doesn't fit with the theory because the earth got cooler after WW2 when lots of carbon dioxide was produced.
  • Possible solutions - Make electricity without fossil fuels, power cars with electricity or biofuels, make things more efficient, use public transport.
  • Forms of pollution and possible solutions:
  • Acid rain - Use other energy sources instead of fossil fuels.
  • Human waste - Recycle more, use sewage to make electrcity in power stations.
  • Eutrophication - Have better sewage treatment and use less nitrates in farming.
  • Radioactive pollution - Reprocess nucleur waste e.g. at sellafield. Means 97% of waste can be re-used. 
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Stewardship - christian

  • Believe god made everything and the Eath is perfect for human life. Genesis 1 and 2 sates god made everything
  • All was made by god the way he wanted it to be. 'God saw what he made and it was very good'.
  • Rest of the bible says humans need to be responsible with the world e.g. sermon on the mount.
  • Christians believe God will judge them on how they act as stewards.
  • How belief on stewardship affect christians attitude towards the environment:
  • Try to reduce pollution.
  • Try to help people in LEDCs as this means things are shared fairly.
  • Support conservation groups as they know god will judge them.
  • Only by being a good steward will a christian become good.
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Stewardship - islam

  • God created Adam as his khalifah Muslims believe they follow on from Adam so must look after the earth.
  • Believe polluters don't go to heaven.
  • How Islamic teachings affect attitudes to the environment:
  • Being Gods khalifah they should try to reduce pollution.
  • Help LEDCs as shariah says they should share the earths resources.
  • Judgement day means they will help conserve Earths resources as they want to get to heaven.
  • Teaching on the unity and balance of creationmeans they will try to preserve the environment.
  • But human concerns must be considered e.g. shutting down a factory means people will suffer. 
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Nature and importance of medical treatments for in

  • Why infertility treatments are important:
  • 12.5 % of UK couple have fertility problems.
  • 1.5 million men have fertility problems.
  • It is human nature to want to have children.
  • People can suffer from depression if they can't have children.
  • Attitudes to treatments - christian:
  • Catholics - Life is given by God. Therefore they don't like fertility treatment. IVF uses a number of eggs some of which are thrown away, catholics view this as abortion. Surrogacy involves masturbation which is a sin.
  • Other christians allow IVF and AIH because - technology allows a couple to have children which is their purpose and egg and sperm are from the husband and wife so the baby is theirs.
  • Islam and infertillity treatment:
  • Most accept infertility treatment  because - It is a form of medicine that allows a family which muslims are expected tohave.
  • Other types of embryo technology are banned - Deny a child the right to know its parents and egg or sperm donation is seen as adultery. 
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Transplant surgery

  • Transplant surgery is important because:
  • Cures fatal diseases and could asve over 4000 extra lives each year if enough donors were found. People needing transplants rises by 8% each year. Lets people help otheres even after they die.
  • Christian attitudes:
  • Most agree but object to rich people being able to buy them from the poor - Believe in the immortality of the soul. Body prats not needed after death. Jesus said love thy neighbour.
  • Against organs from dead people but allow donated organs from livving relatives - The heart is central to who a person is. Taking things from the dead could be seen as playing God.
  • Some don't agree at all - Takes away from the idea of the sanctity of life. Seen as playing God.
  • Islam and transplant surgery
  • Most are against it - Shariah syas nothing should be taken from the body after death. Quran sees it as playing God which is shirk
  • Some allow the use of organs from a living donor - some muslim lawyers have allowed it. Islam aims to do good 
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Religion Peace and Conflict - the un and world pea

  • The United Nations was set up in 1945 and has 5 permenant members, USA, UK, Russia, China and France.
  • Why the UN is important for world peace:
  • They impose sanctions on people who threaten world peace.
  • Authorise use of force against those threatening world peace.
  • Send peace keeping force to either, keep opposing sides apart or enforce peace agreements.
  • UNs work for peace - Kosovo.
  • 1980s Kosovo became part of Serbia, they tried to peacefully gain independance. Majority of Kosovans were Albanian and they fromed the KLA to forcefully try and gain independance. Serbian army the began Ethnic cleansing which led to lots of deaths. NATO bombed Serbia untill its froces withdrew
  • Then the UN took over.
  • Sent peacekeeping forces in to keep out Serbia.
  • Protected Kosovan independance.
  • Allowed Kosovan democracy to develop
  • Helped European union to aid Kosovo.
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War and Peace

  • How religious organisations promote world peace. Pax Christi or Muslim Peace Fellowship..
  • Organise public debates about the horrors of war, organise protests, attend inter faith confrences and work for economic fairness.
  • Wars occur due to several things e.g. religion, nationalism, economics and ideological/ political differences.
  • Just war theory created by St Thomas Aquinas says a war is just if...
  • The cause of war is just - to remove injustice.
  • If it's fought in an attempt to restore peace.
  • Begun as a last resort.
  • Must avoid killing civilians.
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Religious attitude to war

  • Christian attitudes to war..
  • Pacifism - refusing to fight e.g. Pax Christians and Quakers.
  • They believe this because:
  • Jesus said 'turn the other cheek', 'love your enemies' and 'those who live by the sword die by the sword'.
  • The 5th comandment says DO NOT KILL.
  • Can fight in just wars - not always possible to avoid
  • All churches say they can fight in a just war.
  • St Paul said you should follow orders of your government.
  • Jesus never condemned the soldiers that he met.
  • Jesus said 'give to Caesar what is Caesar's'.
  • Islam attitudes - don't belive in pacifism.
  • Greater jihad - make yourself a good muslim.
  • Lesser jihad - struggle with others through the war.
  • Quran says muslims must fight if attacked.
  • Muhammed fought in wars and said muslims must fight.
  • If Muslims die in a just war then they go to heaven.
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Bullying

  • Christian attitudes to bullying, they're all against it beacuse...
  • Violence is sinful.
  • It is mistreating God's creation
  • The golden rule.
  • Parable of good samaritan.
  • Muslim attitudes to bullying...
  • Islamic society is based on the idea of mutual respect
  • Violence without cause is sinful
  • Muslims should protect the weak and innocent
  • Mistreating Gods creation.
  • Religious conflicts within famillies
  • Children no longer want to be part of their parents religion.
  • Children want to marry outside the faith
  • Children may become more religious than their parents.
  • Disagreement over moral issues.
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Forgiveness and reconciliation.

  • Christians believe in forgiveness because...
  • Jesus dies to bring forgiveness.
  • God forgives those who ask.
  • St Paul said christains should try to live in peace with one another, these concepts will help that to happen.
  • All churches teach christians that they should forgive.
  • Muslim teachings on forgiveness and reconcilliation.
  • God is compastionate to sinners.
  • Quran tells muslims to forgive.
  • Hadith show Muhammed forgiving people.
  • Can only ask for forgiveness if you have been so on earth.
  • Should not forgive those that work against Islam.
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