- Stress Bodily responses to stress and research into stress and illness.
- Stress Life Changes/Daily Hassles including research
- Stress Workplace Stress including research
- Stress Personality factors into stress including research
- Stress Coping strategies
- Stress Physiological Methods of stress management (Drugs)
- Stress Psychological methods of stress management (Therapies)
- Social Conformity, Factors, Explanations including research
- Social Obedience, Factors, Explanations including research
- Social Explanations of Independent Behaviour including research
- Social Social Change and its implications
- Abnormality Definitions of Abnormality and limitations
- Abnormality Biological Approach, Drug and ECT Treatments
- Abnormality Behavioural Approach and Systematic Desensitisation
- Abnormality Cognitive approach and CBT (specifically REBT)
- Abnormality Psychodynamic approach and Psychoanalysis.
Two bodily responses to Stress:S.A.M
1. S.A.M (Sympathetic Adrenal-medullary Pathway)
· This is the acute (immediate) response to stress
· Cortex detects a stressor which triggers the Hypothalamus,
· Then Sympathetic branch of the Autonomic nervous system is activated through the nervous system, stimulating the Adrenal Medulla, producing two hormones:
· Adrenaline-increases heart rate for oxygen
· Noradrenaline –sugar for energy.
· This cause the Fight or Flight response, which causes bodily changes such as increase in heart rate (to carry around oxygen around the body quicker); an increase in blood pressure (veins and arteries narrow so blood pumps faster); an increase in muscle tension (which increases reaction time) and the dilation of pupils (helps one to be more aware of one’s surroundings).
research into illness and stress
Aim: See if exam stress affects the functioning of the immune system; it was therefore a natural experiment, using a volunteer sample (75 first-year medical students) and repeated measures.
Procedure: Blood samples were taken of students one month before their exams (low stress period) and again on the first day of their exams (high stress period).
Method: The blood samples measured the participants’ immune functioning by counting the number of leucocytes (natural killer cells & T cells) –High number= strong immune system. Low, it meant the opposite.
Findings: The High stress period+ the number of killer cells and T cells = Low, low stress period + number = high. There was, therefore, a negative correlation between exam stress and immune functioning.
Conclusion: Exam stress is associated with immunosuppression. However, stress is only one factor that may affect the immune system.
H.P.A (Pituitary Adrenal system)
· This is the chronic (slow, long-term) response to stress.
· Cortex detects stressor, triggering the Hypothalamus,
· Activates release of hormone CRF,
· The Pituitary gland in the brain is activated= release of hormone A.C.T.H, from Adrenal Cortex – this releases cortisol
· Cortisol cause the liver to release glucose (fats and sugar), which provide continued energy for the Fight or Flight response. The immune system is suppressed during this process.