Psycholopgy Learning

Psychology Unit 2

Learning

AND

Sex and Gender

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Learning Key Words

LEARNING - ITS AN EXPERIENCE THAT RESULTS IN A CHANGE IN BEHAVIOUR

Key Words

Generalistation - We produce a CR similar to the CS

Extiction - When the CS no longer produces the CR

Spontaneous Recovery - Happens after extiction. The presence of the CS makes the CR reappear

Discrimination - Only produce CR to one specific stimulus 

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Learning Conditioning

Classical Conditioning - LEARNING THROUGH ASSOCIATION.

Pavlov and his dog. Pavlov conditioned his dog to salivate when hearing a metronome by playing the metronome whenever the dog smelled the meat powder.

Operant Conditioning - FORM OF CONDITIONING USING REINFORCEMENT AND PUNISHMENT

Edward Thorndike placed a hungry cat in a box and left food outside. He then timed how long it would take for the cat to figure out how to open the box to get the food. The first time the cat pulled the string by accident. The cat got quicker each time he was in the box. This is because he learned how to open the box.

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Learning Conditioning Key Words

Operant Conitioning Key Words

Reinforcement POSTIVE - The addition of something nice increases the probability that behaviour will be repeated

                     NEGATIVE - The removal of something aversive increases the proability that behaviour will be repeated

Punishment POSITIVE - The addition of something aversive decreases the probablity of that behaviour being repeated.

                      NEGATIVE - The removal of something nice decreases the probability of that behaviour being repeated

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Learning Behaviour Therapy (1)

Systematic Desensitisation - IDEA PHOBIA'S CAN BE UNLEARNT

Evaluation + Studies support the idea that several sessions working through a hierarchy can help reduce the phobia and make it less fearful

      - Lack of follow up studies to see if the patient is cured of phobia

      - Unethical because you are putting the pateint under psychological stress

Flooding - CANT SUSTAIN HIGH LEVELS OF ANXIETY

Evaluation + End outcome of curing the phobia justifies the high distress caused 

      - Unethical because patient is put under high stress in a small period and there is no right to withdraw at any point

      - Hardly any studies to test it effectiveness

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Learning Behaviour Therapy (2)

Aversion Therapy - ASSOCIATING A NOXIOUS STIMULUS WITH AN ALREADY CONDITIONED STIMULUS TO PRODUCE A NEW RESPONSE

Evaluation + Provides patient with greater control over that behaviour

           - Use on homosexuals is highly unethical

           + If combined with some social skills training it can work on paedophilles

The Token Economy - AWARDED TOKENS FOR APPROPRIATE BEHAVIOUR

Evaluation + Studies support its highly effective in controlling unwanted behaviour

            + Other studies show it can be effective in increasing wanted behaviour

            - Outside world isnt controlled and doesnt give tokens out for good behaviour. Therefore unwated behaviour could quickly return 

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Sex and Gender

Sex identity - Biological status of being male or female. Based on chromosomes and genitals

Gender Identity - Psychological status of being male or female

ROLE OF CHROMOSOMES IN TYPICAL GENDER DEVELOPMENT

MALES                                                               FEMALES

XY chromosomes                                              XX chromosomes

Y from Sperm                                                    X from Sperm

Dictates growth of sexual organs and               Dictates growth of sexual organs Testosterone                                                       and Oestrogen

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Sex and Gender Psychodymanis Theory

Psychodynamic Theory - Freud believed that early experiences and our unconcious mind helps us to develop our sense of being male or female. The Libido is with us from birth.

There are 3 phases - Oral phase, Anal phase, and Phallic phase

Phallic Stage

Males - Oedipus complex, Libido creates a desire for the mother and is worried the father will find out and castrate him, this causes castration identity leading him to identify with the father and may adopt gender roles attached to being a male.

Females - Electra complex, Libido creates a desire for father but fears loss of mother's love and noticing mother doesnt have a penis she becomes penis envy and feels she has already been castrated and identifies with the mother and may adopt roles attacdhed to being a female

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Sex and Gender Evaluation

Psychodynamic Theory

Evaluation + Little Hans case study supports Freud's theory

             - Its virtually impossible to test out theory due to it dealing with unconcious mechanisms

             -  There are more plausible theories that can explain gener-appropriate behaviour

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Sex and Gender Social Learning Theory

Social Learning Theory - WE OBSERVE. IMMITATE, AND MAY SEE VICARIOUS REINFORCEMENT.... ARRM

A - attention - child pays attention to same- sex parent

R - retention - child retains info for future use

R - reproduction - child has to be capable of reducing behaviour

M - motivation - both internal and external

Evaluation + Studies support parents encourage gender-approproate behavior

           - theory cant explain some gender- appropriate behaviour

           - theory portrays children as being passive and easily manipulated

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