Research Methods- LAB EXPS
- Controlled experiment
- Not necessarily in a laboratory
- Includes IV and DV
- IV- what is manipulated
- DV- what is measured
- It is easy to replicate because of the amount of control.
- Cause and effect relationships can be established.
- Lack of ecological validity as many findings cannot be generalised to life outside the lab.
- High chance of demand characteristics as ppts know they are being tested for something (due to the high amount of control).
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Research Methods- FIELD EXPS
- Conducted in normal social situations. e.g. workplace, classroom, street etc
- Manipulate IV and measure DV
- Still has control, but behaviour is more natural as the environment has not changed
- No demand characteristics as ppts do not know they are being studied.
- High validity (because of the natural setting)- actions reflect behaviour of TP.
- Difficult to replicate becaus of the lack of control.
- Time Consuming
- Expensive (e.g. equipment like .video cameras could be used).
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Research Methods- NATURAL EXPS
- Studies effects of naturally occurring events
- Researcher has no control over changing situation
- IV- difference in the situation before and after the event has taken place
- DV- the effect on behaviour
- No demand characteristics as the ppts are unaware that they are being studied.
- Ethically sound- the event would happen anyway, its not the researcher's fault.
- Lack of control.
- Impossible to replicate as events are one off's (therefore making it difficult to generalise results).
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Research Methods- CORRELATIONAL ANALYSIS
- Used to test the strength of a relationship between 2 variables
- Can be positive or negative or have no correlation betwen the 2 variables
- ALWAYS represented on a scatter graph
- Correlation Co-efficient can determine the strength of a relationship between 2 variables.
- Even though the strebgth of a relationship can be determined, the cause cannot.
- There may be different reasons for results other than the IV causing the DV.
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Research Methods- OBSERVATIONS
- All psychological research involves observation
- Looking at the behaviour of individuals or groups
3 MAIN TYPES:
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... NATURALISTIC observations
- Looking at naturally occurring behaviour
- Researcher has no influence on those being watched
- People and non-human animals observed
- Normal, everyday setting, natural behaviour
- Researcher makes notes on behaviour as it happens
- No predetermined categories/actions to look out for
- Real life setting, so ppts act normally.
- Low chances of demand charateristics.
- Researchers have no control over variables- 'cause and effect' can't be established.
- Observer Bias- could be selective in whta the see/record.
- Ethical issues- ppts don't know they are being tested.
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... SYSTEMATIC observations
- Researcher observes ppts, but they have certain categories of behaviour they wish to record
- Can use a one-way mirror and record data on a checklist as it occurrs
- can be recorded on a video camera
- Researcher can observe naturally occurring behaviour in a real life setting, so ppts act normally.
- Intervention might be a part of a study, so a natural setting would be disturbed and behaviour may no longer be natural.
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... PARTICIPANT observations
- Researcher becomes part of the group being investigated
- Can observe behaviour first hand, close to ppts
- Researcher must penetrate group through 'SNOWBALL SAMPLING' (i.e. being introduced one by one)
- Researcher can gain valuable insights into group behaviour if they are with the ppts all the time.
- Hard to replicate as there are no fixed procedures.
- Relies heavily on interpretive skills and personal qualities of the observer.
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Research Methods- QUESTIONNAIRES
- Used to ask questions quickly to a target group
- 2 types
- OPEN (qualitative)
- CLOSED (quantitative)
- Either hand delivered or posted to ppts
- Fast, efficient, easy to use.
- Can reach large numbers of people cheaply, and is quicker than other methods.
- Postal questionnaires have a very low response rate.
- Ppts may not give honest answers.
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Research Methods- INTERVIEWS
- Involves the researcher/confederate asking questions face to face to the ppts
- UNSTRUCTURED- like an informal chat
- STRUCTURED- like a job interview
- Most are carried out quickly and are inexpensive.
- UNSTRUCTURED- can uncover sensitive views/issues (relationship is built on trust).
- STRUCTURED- easy to replicate (same questions).
- Face to face with client, so intimate info is discussed- could lead to researcher's views influencing results (researcher bias).
- UNSTRUCTURED- lack of quantitative data- difficult to categorise.
- STRUCTURED- lack of flexibility.
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