Social Learning Theory
Lippa- aggressive behaviour is the intention to harm or injury another living being.
-Vicarious experience- role model
-Bandura- group 2 most likely
-Williams- Canada, two years
-Onyskiw- 11,000 children, between 4-11, questionnaires, witnessing aggression
-Ferguson-Short term effects, video game aggression
-Significant gender differences
Hogg and Vaughan- a process whereby people lose their sense of socialised individual identity
-Zimbardo- cloaked women
-Rehm- 14/19 handball games
-Watson- cross cultural evidence
-Room arousal study- pleasurable
Toch- all prisons inherit their subcultural sediments from the same street corners that supply them with clients. Irwin and Cressey suggest prisons import traits with them when they go into prison. influences include alcohol addiction, unemployment etc.
-Kane and Janus- Low education levels, great unemployment and more serious record
-Kane and Janus- non white, younger inmates, come from places of reinforcement.
-Irwnin and Cressey- the person you are before determines who you join within
-Gangs- gang culutre exists outside and continues in
-Poole and Regoli- juvenile delinquents aggressive before, aggressive within
-No pratical applications
Sykes- prison environment itself must play a part, organisational factors, physical factors, staff characteristics, deprivation, overcrowding.
-Dilulio- failed management, lack of staff discipline, high staff turnover
-McCorkle- high ratio of white to black staff members, higher assault rates.
-Richards- prison programmes have been success and failure, suggesting its how theyre delivered
-Cheeseman- aggression has a lack of purpose
-Johnston- over crowding leads to competition for resources.
-Riots- Doesn't explain why riots suddenly explode.
Females- pre-menstrual tension, androgens, temporary insanity
Males- testosterone, leydic cells in the males testes and adrenal cortex
-Wagner- castrated mouse
-Nelson- femal prisones have high concentration of androgens in blood
-Pillay- 94 athletes, more testosterone the more aggressive the sport.
-Simpson- environmental factors have been seen to correlate more strongly
-Harrison- 56 men, video game aggression, given testosterone, no increase in aggression
-Kimura- improves femal spatial ability, high levels of testosterone.
Serotonin has been found to have an affect on aggression, in that the less serotonin, the more likely aggressive behaviour will occur. The more serotonin a person has the happier they will feel.
-Davidson- violent criminals had less serotonin compared to non violent.
-Monkeys- monkeys have their serotonin reduced and it made them more aggressive.
-IB receptor- mice IB receptor not working, reduced serotonin, more aggression than those with
-Foxes- silver foxes in russia who had been tamed, had high serotonin levels, compared to wild.
-Serotonin- we don't fully understand what it does, more complex than thought.
-animals- can't generalise.
Inherited from parents, faulty gene, males more aggressive -XY, Jacobs made an attempt to link, found many men in prison had XXY instead of XY, inheriting a pre-disposition to violence.
-Sandberg- 47 XXY Karotype, 314 patients, those with XXY more likely to be hospitalised
-Nelson- selective breeding, Cairns bred mice that were manipulated to be aggressive
-Tenous link- lacks validity because it was accepted as fact which could have lead to the increase in XXY men hospitalisation
-Influences- Difficult to seperate nature and nuture influences
- animals- can't generalise
-Theilgaard- increased height 1/1000 XXY, casts doubt
Infidelity and Jealousy
Aggression helps us to hunt, fight and gain resources. Daly and Wilson suggest that men have evolved a number of mate retention strategies to deter their mate from leaving them, ensuring survival of genes, it may include mate guarding or looking through their things. Female circumcision.
-Buss- more jealous of sex or bond? 60% said sex, 85% of women said bond, parental investment
-Daly and Wilson- canada, 9 years, 248/812 cases wife killed husband, jealousy motivation was 24% for men and 7.7% for women
-Dobash and Dobash- femalte battery cases
-Harris- repeated Buss' study and found it lacked validity as findings were different
-Harris and Christenfield- men and women interpret infidelity differently
Group Displays- Warfare
Group displays are used for intimidation and to prove power, warfare is seen as a way of ensuring survival, removing competition, men are only willing to fight if sure of victory,victory leads to high staus, more women, therefore greater sucess at passing on genes.
-Chagnon- warriors abduct the women of the tribe theyre battling, **** of enemies women too
-Protection- traditionally women and children are protected from war, ensuring survival
- in and out- in group protected and out group seen as enemy, own country is seen as in group
-iraq- signficant losses on both sides.
Group Displays- Sport
Abusive gestures and rude language is used to show that the other team has a high likelihood of losing, victory brings status both to players and fans, achieveing success with women too. in evolutionary terms the men need to scare off the oppostiion to increase chances of survival.
-Wilson- naturally xenophobic to protect selves and resources (castaway)
-Podaliri- Northern italian football crowds openly xenophobic, in and out groups
-Marsh- the aggressive displays are actually highly ordered and ritualised, achieving a sense of personal worth , alternative career structure (Rodney Marsh)