- Created by: noonoo2001
- Created on: 25-03-19 18:58
Foregin Relations, Jan 1547
- Allies = Low Countries, Burgundy and HRE (Hasburg)
- Traditional enemy Fr + Scot
- Firecest enemies = Catholic
- War still going on v Fr/Scot
- Aristocracy/gentry wanted war to continued - national pride
- If Somerset end war = loss of support among landed elites
- Council bound by H8 last wishes for E6 + MQof S marriage - secure succession
- Meant continuing a war based on ill-founded belief that a military victory would force the Scots to agree to the marriage.
1 of 9
Ec Prob Jan 1547
- Gov virtually bankrupt
- Bad harvests, mid-late 1540s
- Monastries = gone - trad means of easing agrarian tension - duty not taken up by new landowners (most had profited from D of M)
- State - left to deal with it - used largely trad based solutions e.g. poor law legislation/anti-enclosure - not supported by landowners (who dominated P/local gov).
- Depop of rural areas - at same time cloth-making industries were moving to rural areas to avoid over-regulation.
- Food shortages/unemployment/depression/inflation.
- War with other coutries = expensive. H8 had spent £2,100,000 mill on war in Fr
- £152,000 borrowed from contiental bankers
- Monastic lands seized (1538-40) sold of to pay for this + some of crown lands.
- Crown land income = £200,000 PA - insufficent to run country + pay of loans.
- Urgent need to reform the taxation/custom systems + bring the way that finances were adminstrated up to date - S did none of these things due to preoccupation with the war + concern if they raised taxes, this would be unpop with the elites/taxpayers - fell back on debasement/seizing church property.
2 of 9
- John Cheke:
- E6 well versed in scripture, ph, liberal sciences (maths/hist etc...)
- Richard Cox:
- Almoner for E6 household - in charge of the prince's charitable contributions.
- Latin/Grk - humanist scholars deemed it critical to know the anicent ph e.g. Plato, Aristotle and Cicero.
- Roger Ascham:
- Famous writer of the time
- Also E1 tutor in Grk/Latin
3 of 9
H8 will - lost?
- Confirmed succession of E6 + his kids, followed by any sons of CP/H8, then M1/E1 and then the Grey-Brandon descendants of H8 sister Mary (married Charles Brandon, D of Suffolk).
- Not signed by H8 own hand - legally it should have been.
- Signed by dry stamp - stamp under control of Sir Antony Denny (turns out he was a more radical reformer than he let on + named on the governing council along with his fellow radical Sir William Herbert).
- Will turned up a few days after H8 death - dry stamped with his sig - making certain distributions of lands/titles + naming the gov council.
4 of 9
E6 regency council/gov
- 16 members + 12 more if needed.
- Example: Cramner/Seymour/Dudley/Tunstal.
- Montague (of Common Pleas) + Bromly (of King's bench) = chief justices.
- Neutral in R matters - express no prefences
- 5 conservatives, 4 moderates, 2 radicals and 5 neutrals.
- Could not work effectively.
- Ed Seymour grasps power
- Suspicious since he + Paget (friend) had kept H8 death a secret + taken custody of his last will.
- Was able to rally support this way (including that of Wriothesley, the Lord Chancellor + de facto leader of the conservative faction), who announced that the King's uncle had been named leader of the board of councillors.
- Eventually becomes Lord Protector.
5 of 9
Prob with E6
- Only 9
- Clear contrast to H7/8 in terms of degree of P auth he was able to exercise.
- Prob of his reign - never able to wield power/prerogative in person - despite evd of increasing interest in affairs og gov + determination to be involved.
- Not as weak/helpless as he appeared
6 of 9
- R divisions - split country
- Expensive wars against Fr/Scot
- Debasement of the coinage
- Sale of monastic lands - jeopardised long term security of crown.
7 of 9
R prob in 1547
- 1539 - Act of 6 Articles - H8 tried to prevent any further legislation.
- Prot clergy/laity - want more changes.
- PC = mostly moderate - anxious to keep the support of influential reformers e.g Bish of Ridley and Latimer.
- Adminstration had to make some gesture towards into R reform - otherwise risk losing support of Prot activists + encourage a Cath revival - could have resulted in the adminstration losing power.
8 of 9
Long term prob E6 inherited
- Pop increase - main cause of inflation - greater demand for goods pushed up prices.
- Living standards threatened + wages not increasing.
- More people available for employment = more poverty + increase in no of vagrants looking for work.
- 1549 - poor harvest - level of pop discontent rose.
9 of 9