Populations and Ecosystems 1.1

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Populations and Ecosystems 1.1

Specification žA population is all the organisms of one species in a habitat. Populations of different species form a community. žWithin a habitat a species occupies a niche governed by adaptation to both biotic and abiotic conditions.

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Ecology

žStudy of inter-relationships between organisms in their environment. ž‘Environment’ includes biotic (living) and abiotic (non-living) organisms. žBiotic features could include: competition, predators etc. žAbiotic features could include: temp, rainfall, pH etc. žLooks at the biosphere (areas of land, sea and air) of the earth that are life supporting.

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Ecosystems

energy and cycling of elements within system. žExample = pond. žMade up of a number of species. 

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Population

žGroup of interbreeding organisms in one species within a habitat. žEdge of population hard to determine. žFactors include: species type, size of creature, ability to move long distances etc. žPopulations of different species form a community. 

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Community

žAll the populations of different organisms living and interacting in a particular place at the same time. žCan include a large range of species of animals, plants, fungi, bacteria etc. 

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Habitat

žPlace where a community of organisms live. žAn ecosystem can contain many habitats. žEach habitat can be divided into smaller units called a microhabitat

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Ecological niche

žDescribes how an organism fits into environment. (Adaptation to factors etc) žRefers to all the factors in the area that allow organism to survive and reproduce. žNo two species occupy same niche.

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Summary

    Each species occupy an ecological niche within their microhabitat. A group of one Species forms a Population. Populations of different species form a Community; these live in a Habitat. A group of habitats then make up an Ecosystem.

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