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BIRTH RATE: The number of births/1000 of the population.

DEATH RATE:The number of deaths/1000 of the population.

INFANT MORTALITY RATE: The number of children who die before their first birthday/1000 births.

MIGRATION:Moving from one place to another.

IMMIGRANT:Someone who enters a place.

EMIGRANT:Someone who exits a place.

URBANISATION:Moving from a rural area to an urban city area.


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There may be a high birth rate if there is no birth control, sex education or family planning as women just continue to have children. High infant mortality rate means that a family will have four children in the hope that two will survive. Children can be used as economic assets or to work in agriculture.


High levels of disease means people get ill easily and die. Lack of clean water can cause disease or lack of food and water may cause starvation and dehydration leading to death. Lack of healthcare means people die from diseases and illnesses before they can be treated. Lack of education means no skilled jobs or experience to go into being a doctor for example.


Better family planning and lower infant mortality rate. Changing status of women means they have careers and marry later so have children later or not at all. Less need for agricultural workers-replaced by machines.


Better healthcare and reliable food/water supply.

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Population pyramids

Image result for ledc and medc population pyramidsAn LEDC has a high birth rate and a high death rate. The pyramid is a typical pyramid shape; wide at the bottom indicating high birth rate/lots of young people and narrow and the top indicating high death/few elderly people.

An MEDC has a low birth rate and a low death rate. The pyramid isn't a typical pyramid shape; it starts to widen into a rectangular shape. The pyramid is becomming narrower at the bottom indicating a low birth rate/fewer young people and widening at the top indicating a low death rate/lots of elderly people.

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Overpopulation is when there are too many people for the resources. It is likely to be a problem in countries in stages 2 and 3 of the DTM which have a rising population.

The problems with overpopulation:             SOCIAL          ECONOMIC      ENVIRONMENTAL

Healthcare and education services cannot cope. There are not enough houses so overcrowding takes place(people go to live in shanty towns for example). Children have to work to support large famillies so they miss out on education. There can be food shortages.

There are not enough jobs for people leading to unemployment. Unemployment leads to increased poverty.

Increased waste means more rots in landfills. Increased use of cars means more pollution that contributes to global warming. More natural resources used like firewood.


  • Birth control- restrct births for couples, family planning, sex education and contraception.
  • Immigration- only let in certain amount/people (like those not of child bearing age)


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Ageing population

An ageing population is caused because there are more older people over 65 than yonger people because fewer are being born and more people survive to old age. An ageing population is typical of MEDCs soon to enter stage 5 of the DTM.

Problems:            SOCIAL               ECONOMIC

Strain on healthcare as elderly peole need more healthcare. People have fewer children as they cannot afford them when they have dependant relatives and pay high taxes. People spend more time working as unpaid carers so have less leisure time and become stressed. Taxes need to increase to help fund services like state pensions, retirement homes and healthcare. People have to retire later as they can't afford to retire on state pension. Country economy slows as less money is spent on development like education and business.


  • Encourage larger famillies increases birth rate so working people will soon increase.
  • Encourage immigration of younger people leads to more working people paying taxes.
  • Raising the retirement age means more people are working and paying taxes.
  • Raising taxes means there is more money to fund services for older people.
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Reasons for migration

ECONOMIC IMMIGRANTS: People who immigrate in order to find worrk seeking a better quality of life.

FORCED MIGRATION: People who are forced to flee from their homes like during war.

International migration: Moving from one country to another.

Internal migration: Moving from one region of a country into a different region in the same country.

Pull factor: Something that attracts someone to a place.

  • Job oppurtunities- higher income is more money to spend for a good quality of life.
  • Good social services like education and healthcare
  • Quality of life is said to be better.

Push factors: Something negative that pushes someone away from a place.

  • Natural Hazards
  • Local diseases and lack of medical care to help
  • High crime rates make it dangerous.
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Impact and management of migration


Migrant workers pay taxes to fund services. There is a bigger labour force. Money made by migrants is usually sent back to their country of origin. Less pressure on services like healthcare and education.


Competition for jobs causes conflict. Some money made by migrants is sent back to the country of origin rather than being spent in the destination country. People of young people emigrate so there is a small labour force. Skilled people emigrate so there is a skill shortage like doctors for example. There are lots of elderly people left who cannot work so economy doesn't grow.


  • Government can give grants to expand businesses in order to attract workers to that area.
  • Control the amount of immigrants allowed in taking into account job availablity and public opinion.
  • Control illegal immigration- arrest illegal immigrants and send them back to their country of origin.
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