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physics (stopping distance)

stopping distance = thinking distance + breaking distance

  • thinking distance = distance traveled by vehicle while driver reacts
  • breaking distance = distance traveled by vehicle breaks bring it to a stop
  • stopping distance = sum of thinking distance and breaking distance

changing stopping distance = reaction time slowed down by

  • being tired
  • illness
  • taken drugs
  • drinking alchol
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physics (alpha particles )

  • helium atoms
  • contain protons, two neutrons, just like nucleas of helium atom
  • have no electrons
  • charge of +2
  • emitted from the nucleus at high speeds
  • very dangerouse
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physics (beta particels)

  • electrons emitted from unstable nucleus
  • less ionising that alpha particles (they can penetrate further)
  • can be bloced by a few milimeters of alaminium or thin pieces of lead
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physics (gamma rays)

  • most penetrating, more ionising
  • very high frequency emitted by electromagnetic waves
  • do not have charge
  • travel at speen of light
  • 10x less ionising
  • absorbed by many meters of concrete
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physics (half life)

  • decays = whenever a piece of radioactive material gives out radioactive particles
  • more it decays, more stable the material becomes
  • half life = time taken for half th unstable nuclei in a sample of radioactive isotopes to decay
  • geiger muller tube = number of clicks per second/minute
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physics (work and power)

amount of energy transfered (Joules, J)

work done equal to energey transfered

work done = force x distance moved in direction of force

J                =   N    X   M

power = rate of doing work

measured in watts (W)

power = work done (Joules, J)

              time taken (seconds)

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physics (velocity and acceleration)

  • velocity = speed in a given direction
  • acceleration = the change in velocity per second

acceleration = change in velocity (m/s)

                       time taken (seconds, S)

A= ( V - U )


  • scalar - size quantity
  • vector - has size and direction

speed (M/S) = distace traveled (meter, m)

                          time taken (seconds, s)

  • A= acceleration
  • V= final velocity
  • U= starting velocity
  • T= time
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physics (velocity time graphs)

horrizontal line = step slope and is at a steady speed, it is accelerating

flat (stationary) line = constant speed

line going down is decelerating

acceleration = speed increasing

speed = distance

                  time                           (dont squash turtles magic triangle)

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physics (forces)

  • must be a force to make any stationary object move (object will accelerate)
  • balanced forces = stays the same at constant speed
  • gravity pulling down
  • upthrust pushing up
  • force = anything that causes an object to move or change direction
  • free body diagram = showing all forces, size and direction of forces

(resultant force = over all force)

force       =         mass (Kg)      x        acceleration (m/s)2

F            =                M             X                   A

(FMA magic triangle)

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