Physics P3

  • Created by: abbiedye
  • Created on: 29-07-18 10:44

What is Internal Energy?

  • The amount of kinetic energy and potential energy of all the particles in the system
  • A rise in temperature - particles speed up - gain kinetic energy
  • Melts or boils - energy breaks bonds - increases potential energy
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What is Specific Heat Capacity?

  • The amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1kg of a substance by 1 degrees

change in thermal energy = mass x specific heat capacity x temperature change

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What are the states of matter?


  • strong forces of attraction
  • held together in regular patterns
  • not much energy - can only vibrate


  • weaker forces of attraction
  • close together - can move past each other
  • some energy - random directions - low speeds


  • no forces of attraction
  • more energy - free to move
  • random directions and speeds
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How is force created and increased?

  • When particles collide, they exert a force called pressure
  • In a sealed container - outward gas pressure = total force exerted by all the particles
  • Increasing the temperature - energy transferred to kinetic energy stores - more collisions
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How do you calculate density?

  • Density = measure of the 'compactness' of a substance

density = mass / volume

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What is Internal Energy?

  • Internal energy is the energy stored by the particles that make up a system
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What are the changes of state?

  • Solid to Liquid = melting
  • Liquid to Solid = freezing
  • Liquid to Gas = boiling / evaporating
  • Gas to Liquid = condensing
  • Solid to Gas = sublimating
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What is Specific Latent Heat?

  • The amount of energy needed to change 1kg of a substance from one state to another without changing its temperature

energy = mass x specific latent heat

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