Osteology - Anatomical Terminology

  • Created by: AshLia
  • Created on: 22-09-19 08:49

Key Words

  • Anatomical - An expression that related to anatomy
    • Anatomy The branch of morphology tha deas with the structure of animals alternative names for the body of a human being 
  • Cranial Skeleton Anatomy - Refers to the skull
  • Axial Skeleton -  Refers to the bones of the trunk; including vertebrae, sacrum, ribs and sternum
  • Appendicular Skeleton -  Refers to the bones of the limbs, including the shoulder and pelvic girdles
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Why Do We Have The Terminology?

  • Human anatomis and anthropoloigists use the vocubulary to describe the human bone specifically
  • Anatomical nomenclature* is both concise and precise
  • Allows for unambiguous communication among all researchers who study skeletal material 
  • It has evolved from a classical foundation - many names coming from Latin or Greek terms, a working knowledge of these roots can help in the learning of the names of bones
  • Creates a standard for viewing the anatomy of hominids
    • Standard anatomical position
      • Standing
      • Looking forward
      • Feet together & pointing forward
      • Palms facing forward & thumbs pointing away from the body
      • Left right refer to the sides of the observered not the observer

*nomenclature = a set of names or terms used in a particular science or art 

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Standard Anatomical Position

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Planes of Reference

  • Sagittal (midsagittal, median or midline):
    • Divides the body down the middle into symetrical halves - right and left
  • Parasagittal:
    • A planar slice that parallels the sagittal plane
  • Coronal:
    • Divides the body into anterior and posterior halves
  • Transverse:
    • Slices through the body at any height perpendicular to the sagittal and coronal planes
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Planes of Reference (Visual)

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Directional Terms

  • In osteology it is useful to refer to directions of motion or the relative locations of various skeletal parts 
    • All GENERAL directional terms refer to the human body in SAP
    • Also applicable to all mammals
  • A few terms may cause confusion when hominid and nonhominid bones are bein compared because humans are orthograde (upright triunk) bipred and most other animals are pronograde (trunk horizontal) quadrupeds
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Directional Terms - General

  • Superior: towards the head end of the hominid body
  • Inferiror: the body parts away from the head of the hoiminid
  • Anterior: towards the front of the hominid body 
  • Posterior: towards the back of the hominid body
  • Medial: towards the midline 
  • Lateral: away from the midline 
  • Proximal: nearest the axial skeleton
  • Distal: the furtherst away from the axial skeleton
  • External: outside the hominid body
  • Internal: inside the hominid body
  • Endocrinal: the inner surface of the cranial vault
  • Ectocrinal: the outer surface of the cranial vault 
  • Superficial: close to the surface 
  • Deep: far from the surface
  • Subcontaneous: just below the skin 


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Directional Terms - Teeth

  • Mesial: toward the midline point of the dental arch where the central incisors contact each other
  • Distal: opposite of the mesial
  • Lingual: toward the tongue
  • Labial: toward the lips  (usually reserved for incisors and canines)
  • Buccal: toward the cheeks (reserved usually for premolars and molars)
  • Interproximal: in contact with adjacent teeth in the same jaw
  • Occlusal: facing the opposing dental arch
  • Incisal: the biting, or occlusal edge of the incisors
  • Mesiodistal: axis running from mesial to distal
  • Buccolingual & Labiolingual: axis running from labial or buccal to lingual
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Directional Terms - Teeth (Visual)

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Directional Terms - Hands & Feet

  • Palmar: palm side of the hand
  • Plantar: sole of the foot
  • Dorsal: top of the foot or back of the hand 
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Motions of the Body

  • Movement of the body occurs when muscles act directly or via tendons on bones
  • The less mobile attachment point that anchors a muscle is called the origin of the muscle
  • The insertion is the site of muscle attachment wuth relatively more movement than the origin
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Motions of the Body (Visual)

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Motions of the Body - General

  • Flexion: a bending movement that decreases the angle between body parts
  • Extension: a straightening movement that increases the angel between body parts 
  • Abduction: movement of a body part (usually a limb) away from the sagittal plane
  • Adduction: movement of a body part (usually a limb) toward the sagittal plane
  • Circumduction: a combination of abduction and adduction, extension and flexion - that results in an appendage moving in a cone-shaped path
  • Rotation: motion that occurs as one body part turns on an axis
  • Opposition: motion in which body parts are brought together
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Motions of the Body - Hands & Feet

  • Pronation: rotary motion of the forearm that turns the palm from anteriorly facing to posteriorly facing
  • Supination: rotary motion of the forearm that returns the palm to a position in which the thumb is lateral
  • Dorsiflexion: flexion of the entire foot away from the ground 
  • Plantarflexion: flexing of the entire foot inferiorly (towards the ground at the ankle)
  • Eversion: turning the sole of the foot outward so that it faces away from the midline of the body
  • Inversion: turning the sole of the foot inward so that is faces toward the midline of the body
    • Also known as the supination of the foot
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General Bone Features

  • Whereas the directions and motions have precise meanings, the bony features of the body are more ambiguous and cross-cutting
  • The conventional labels for various bones and bone parts are always adopted to ensure stability of nemenclature and effectiveness of communication
  • Specific terms for nearly all bones and their parts are already established
    • For example, the question 'when is a tubercle big enough to be called a tuberosity (or tochanter)' is rarely faced by osteologists
      • The 'greater trochanter' of a femur, for example, identifies a particular, unique structure for all human osteologists
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General Bone Features - Projections & Parts

  • Process: a bony prominence
  • Eminence: a bony projection - usually not as prominent as a process
  • Spine: a longer, thinner, sharper process than an eminence
  • Tuberosity: a large, usually rugose eminence of variable shape (often site of tendon/ligament attachment)
  • Tubercle: a small, usually rugose eminence (often site of tendon/ligament attachment) 
  • Trochanters: two large, prominent, blunt, rugose processes found on the femur
  • Malleolus: a rounded proterbance adjacent to the ankle joint it is easy to palpate
  • Boss: a smooth, round, broad eminence
  • Articulation: an area where adjacent bones are in contact at a joint (via cartilage/fibrous tissue)
  • Condyle: a rounded articular process
  • Epicondyle: a nonarticular projection adjacent to a condyle
  • Head: a large, rounded, usually articulated end of a bone
  • Shaft: the long, straight section between the ends of a long bone
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General Bone Features - Projections & Parts (2)

  • Epophysis: usually the end proportion or extremity of a long bone that is expanded for articulation
  • Neck: the section of a bone between the head and the shaft
  • Torus: a bony thickening
  • Ridge: a linear bony elevation, often rugose
  • Crest: a prominent, usuallu sharp and thin ridge of bone (often formed between adjacent muscle masses)
  • Line: a raised linear surface, not as thick as a torus or as sharp as a crest
  • Hamulus: a hook-shaped projection
  • Facet: a small articular surface, or a tooth contact
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General Bone Features - Depressions

  • Fossa: a depressed are (usually broad and shallow)
  • Fovea: a pit-like, depressed area (usually smaller than a fossa)
  • Groove: a long pit or furrow
  • Sulcus: a long, wide groove
  • Fontanelle: a space between vranial bones of an infant 
  • Suture: where adjacent bones of the skull articulate
  • Foramen: an opening through a bone (usuallu a passage for blood vessels and nerves)
  • Canal: a tunnel-like, extended foramen
  • Meatus: a short canal
  • Sinus: a cavity within a cranial bone
  • Alveolus: a tooth socket
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