origins of psychology


What did Wundt do?

-opened first psychology lab in Germany
-used introspection (observing own conscious thoughts /emotions in reaction to stimuli) to study mental states in replicable lab experiments

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Evaluate introspection

controlled procedure:
-philosophers before Wundt used introspection in very uncontrolled way, whereas Wundt strictly controlled the environment, tasks & stimuli which participants were subjected to. he limited responses they could give & trained them up on introspection beforehand.
not scientific:
-based on implicit thought which could be outside conscious awareness & could be bias as it's their own subjective experience. also couldnt be replicated. lack of validity, objectivity & reliability allowed Watson to argue for emergence of behaviourism over introspection.
useful contributions:
-influential in paving path of controlled empirical research & recent research has inc. introspection as a way of measuring emotions.

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Define empiricism

behaviour has a cause, can be predicted & tested.
emprical methods measure experience in objective ways, using quantitative data to make inferences.
lab experiments measure cause & effect and controlled variables allows replicability.

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Evaluate empricism

-due to determinist beliefs, scientific objective methods can be used to test theory, which other scientists constantly test for reliability, so scientific knowledge can easily be corrected, meaning its progressive.
objectivity reduces reality:
use of highly controlled environments means its unlikely to reflect real life, so lacks ecological (external) validity.
most is unobservable:
memory, perception etc requires inferences to be made, so arguing that human behaviour is subject to laws means predictions cant be made.
paradigm shifts:
-scientific paradigm is based on specific idea, but psychology has 5 different approaches, so theres no common perspective, meaning it cant be considered a science.

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Discuss Pavlov's classical conditioning (dog study

believes behaviour is learnt through stimulus - response associations

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Discuss Watson's classical conditioning (little al

we are born tabula rasa & CC can explain all aspects of human psychology

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Discuss Skinner's operant conditioning (Rat box)

believes you can learn through consequence.
condition 1: rat in + reinforcement box accidentally knocked lever which gave pellet, so rat continued pressing lever for + consequence (when reinforcer was removed, rat stopped: extinction).
condition 2: rat in - reinforcement box accidentally knocked lever which made electric current stop, so rat continued pressing lever for removal of - feeling.

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Evaluate behaviourism (RIA)

(R) scientific research:
-both (P+S) use scientific, controlled conditions, experimental methods where cause & effect can be accurately identified, which adds internal validity, therefore validity for approach.
(R) animal research:
-this tells us little about human behaviour, which is much more complex, so role of cognition is ignored (emotions, motivation etc). can use little albert as supporting
(I) hard environmental determinism:
-suggests all behaviour is caused/learnt from environment & experience, therefore suggesting free will is an illusion. e.g: evidence that not all ppl bitten by a dog develops phobia.
(A) contributes to development of behavioural therapy:
-classical cond. led to treatment of phobias using systematic desensitisation; replacing fear response (CS) w/ alternative. operant cond. has led to token economies in prisons where secondary reinforcers can be exchanged for primary reinforcers.

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Discuss SLT & why it differs from behaviourism (4

-SLT believes behaviour is learnt through observing role models which we then imitate, especially w/ direct reinforcement.
-it accounts for mediational processes
3)motor production
4)motivational processes

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Discuss Bandura's Bobo doll experiment

1) each condition has 12 boys, 12 girls
2) kids taken into separate rooms after observation & filmed playing w/ dolls for 20 mins
3) aggressive group showed higher lvls than all other conditions
4) more likely to imitate same sex role model (identification)
5) boys more aggressive in all conditions

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Discuss replicated Bobo experiment findings (V.R)

children more likely to imitate role models who've been rewarded for aggression, showing existence of vicarious reinforcement
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Evaluate Bandura's study

experimental method & internal validity:
- high control of variables, scientific/empirical lab experiment so cause & effect established, also standardised procedure allowed replicability, & repeated study showed reliability.
artificial settings & ecological validity:
- used unfamiliar role model in artificial settings with no interactions, which doesnt reflect real life role-modelling in family/school context. also is a 'snap shot study' which fails to inform us on long term exposure to behaviours in environment.

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Evaluate SLT (RIA)

(R) supporting research:
- bandura's research w/ similar replication provides solid support for importance of role modes, identification, imitation, vicarious reinforcement etc.
(I) not reductionist:
- comprehensive explanation as it recognises role of meditational processes, showing individuals are active in processing & interpreting behaviour (free will), so the theory can account for individual differences...soft determinism.
(I) role of nature:
- doesnt acknowledge biology & behaviour which is innately determined (boys may have been more aggressive due to testosterone) so it cant fully explain all human behaviour
(A) reducing stereotypes:
- can explain development of gender typical behaviour (identification) through real life/media, developing gender stereotypes/sexism. theory has been used to introduce legislation on advertising agencies, so less gender stereotypes are shown in media...positive contributions.

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Define theoretical models in the Cognitive approac

- these are made based on inferences as mental processes cant be directly observed
- information processing approach: info flows through cognitive system in a sequence of stages, like a computer which inputs, stores & retrieves data e.g. MSMM, ABC mode, cognitive triad etc.

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Define the 4 main assumptions of the Cognitive app

1) behaviour largely explained through internal processes e.g. thought.
2) conscious thought can influence behaviour & meditational processes occur between stimulus & response.
3) information processing approach suggests mind works like computer.
4) mental processes can be scientifically studied w/ lab experiments.

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Define schemas & why they are/aren't helpful

schemas = mental structures which contain knowledge from experiences, organising the info to guide our behaviour e.g. social schemas, self schemas etc. they effect how we interpret stimuli & make decisions.
schemas ARE helpful:
- time efficient as you can make shortcuts when organising & interpreting large amounts of info rapidly, which also help us not feeling too overwhelmed by large amounts of stimuli.
schemas ARENT helpful:
-shortcuts we use could lead to prejudice based on stereotypes.
- we have attentional biases to info held in our schema, so we dont consider contradictory views, so our views go unchallenged.
- we may misremember things if they dont fit into our schema.

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Discuss Beck's schema from his negative triad

Beck's negative triad:
- depression lies in traumatic childhood experiences e.g. rejection/criticism
- leads to negative schemas of world, self & future developing e.g. expectation of failure in situations similar to when schemas were learnt.
- led to CBT to identify, challenge & replace negative schemas w/ positive schemas.

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Discuss the emergence of cognitive neuroscience

- uses scanning techniques to study influence of biological brain structure, function & chemistry on cognitive processes.
- PET/fMRI used to understand how brain supports cognitive activity.
- e.g. Clive Wearing's damaged hippocampus showed how types of LTM are located in different areas of the brain, explaining his memory loss.

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Evaluate the cognitive approach (RIA)

(R) scientific:
- uses experimental methods w/ controlled conditions to establish relationships between variables.
- neuroscience means scientific scanning techniques can provide biological basis of cognitions, which also improves objectivity, as inference doesnt need to be heavily relied on.
(R) external validity:
- lacks ecological validity as doesnt mimic real life e.g. artificial & controlled word lists used to test memory doesnt tell us what we can recall naturally, like why certain childhood memories are forgotten.
(I) machine reductionism:
- computer analogy reduces complexity of human mind & behaviour to a machine, failing to acknowledge human brain's physiology, such as adaptions from experiences (neural plasticity). furthermore, doesn't consider role of motivation & emotion when interpreting info e.g. effect of anxiety on human memory.
(A) contributions:
in psychopathology, has made link between abnormal behaviour & faulty thinking (role of negative thinking) in developing depression etc, which has led to development of CBT, shown to effectively reduce long term symptoms.

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Discuss the evolutionary approach (biological)

-through evolution, we adapt to our environment due to natural selection; whereby 'survival of the fittest' occurs, meaning eventually, generations develop behaviours aiding their survival.
-e.g. Bowlby's attachment theory: critical period can be explained by our ancestors needing to attach to mothers instantly, such as baby monkeys' clinging to mothers fur.

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Discuss the genetic approach (biological) with Bou

-genes are passed down (hereditary) w/ instructions for the characteristic, but how they develop depends on how they react with other genes & the environment.

-Bouchard conducted meta-analysis exploring role of genetics in intelligence & found following C-rates:

1) same person tested 2x = 87%

2) Mz twins reared together = 86%

3) Mz twins reared apart = 72%

4) Dz twins reared together = 60%

5) Unrelated living apart = 0%

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Discuss biological structures in the approach nerv

Nervous system =
-CNS (brain & spinal cord) PNS (somatic & autonomic).
-Neurotransmitters (excitatory - sends trigger nerve impulses to stimulate brain, inhibitory - sends nerve impulses to calm down & balance brain) send electric signals between cells to control aspects of behaviour e.g. sleep, arousal.
Brain =
-2 hemispheres w/ 4 lobes: frontal, parietal, occipital & temporal.
-Sperry showed 2 hemispheres have specialised functions (split brain study) & localised structures w/ functions (hypothalamus & hippocampus)
-Clive Wearing showed how a damaged hippocampus resulted in LTM problems.
-Neural plasticity shows how brain can recover damaged areas & adapt to experiences.
Endocrine system =
-Works w/ nervous system to control vital functions.
-Glands produce hormones which can affect behaviours.
-Androgens lvl in Males are higher, Oestrogen lvl in Females is higher, which is argued to be important in gender development.

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Evaluate the biological approach (RIDA)

(R) scientific:
-experimental methods in controlled environments allows replication/improves reliability. biophysiological scanning techniques (fMRI) improves objectivity.
(I) causation:
-correlational, studies may show a relationship between e.g. activity lvls in the brain & specific emotion, but this may not be root cause, or there may be 3+ variables to consider. e.g. assuming headache is due to lack of paracetamol.
(D) biological reductionism:
-reduces complex human behaviour to one single component (too simplistic), however, useful as it allows scientific investigation of isolated variables
(A) useful applications:
-found the role of biological factors in psychological illnesses, allowing research into neurochemical imbalances in depression/anxiety, thus drug treatments like SSRI's which have been successful in reducing symptoms.

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Discuss the role of the ID & the 3 defence mechani

most everyday actions are product of the unconscious mind, which prevents trauma from surfacing to the conscious as this would cause anxiety, thus we use defence mechanisms to prevent this.
REPRESSION = unconsciously blocking repressed emotions, but still might affect individuals behaviour.
DENIAL = refusal to accept reality e.g. alcoholic denying they have a drinking problem, but previously arrested for drunkenness.
DISPLACEMENT = redirection of tricky thoughts/emotions onto person/object, so they still feel they have a route of expression.

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Discuss how development could be restricted w/ the

-at each area of body in each stage there are gratification centres.
-libido/sexual energy is the driving force
-ego & superego develop to control gratification (Id's needs) into sociably acceptable ways (creates conflict).
-frustration/overindulgence at any stage causes fixation, restricting full development & causing certain behaviours e.g. anal-retentive personality.

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Discuss the Oedipus complex (4 stages)

- age 3-4, boy aware of sexuality + desires mother, wants sole attention
- hates father - stands in way of mother
- recognises father is powerful + develops castration anxiety
- resolution - identifies with father + internalises gender identity - masculine behaviours

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Discuss the Electra complex (Jung) 5 points

- age 3-4, girl starts admiring mother & envies father who has sole attention
- starts desiring father, realises cant have penis...penis envy
- blames mother for 'castrated state'
- represses father desire w/ desire for a baby
- identifies w/ mother & internalises gender ID.

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Explain the Little Hans case study in 3 stages (ps

1) had fear of horses who resembled his father (castration envy), as they used to play 'horses' together, so association made.
2) had sexual fantasies of a plumber castrating him & replacing w/ bigger.
3) Freud said this was desiring father/'identification w/ the aggressor).

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Evaluate psychodynamic approach (RIA)

(R) pioneering methodology:
-huge shift in psychology as used case studies (based on behavioural observations) rather than introspection, however, you cant make universal claims based on single psychologically abnormal sample. he was also subjective (knew Hans' dad) so lacks scientific rigour.
(I) untestable concepts:
-doesnt meet scientific criterion of falsification, so cant be empirically tested as Freud claimed many concepts exist at unconscious level...reducing validity
(I) gender bias:
-androcentric approach & displays alpha bias by exaggerating difference between males & females e.g. 'femininity is failed masculinity' & 'females cant identify w/ aggressor so develop weak superegos', but official crime statistics dont support this.
(A) psychoanalysis:
Freud brought psychoanalysis therapy to the world, developing techniques such as hypnosis (designed to reach Id) which has been successful in reaching root cause of disorders (drug therapy fails this).

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Discuss 3 main factors of Malsow's hierarchy of ne

-theory of motivation to eventually self-actualise, depending if needs are met.
-when 1 need is met, humans turn their attention to the next need above.
-those reaching self actualisation will share characteristics such as: creativity, accurate perception of world, free from fear & acceptance of others.

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Discuss Roger's positive self-regard & define the

-the self-concept: self-worth + positive regard from others'.
-self-worth is developed through childhood via interactions w/ our parents & peers & is important for our mental health.
-closer our self concept & ideal self are together (congruence), greater self-worth & mental health, and vice vera (incongruence).
-some lvl of incongruence is common, as ppl use defence mechanisms to feel less threatened about state of incongruence.

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Discuss Roger's conditions of worth (unconditional

unconditional positive regard = limitless love & acceptance from others' e.g. parents/spouse, which help individual reach self actualisation.
conditional positive regard = person must adhere to conditions to achieve love & acceptance of others', resulting in only achieving self-acceptance when also achieving conditions of worth placed upon them.

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Evaluate the humanist approach (RIA)

(R) supporting:
teenagers found having to fulfil conditions of worth (parents etc) end up not liking themselves & more likely develop depression. also develop 'false self behaviour': doing things to meet others' expectations even if it clashes w/ their own values.
(I) methods of research:
too vague/difficult to scientifically measure, therefore, no scientific evidence to verify validity...research has shown personal growth from humanistic counselling, however, this doesnt objectively show a cause & effect relationship; approach doesnt meet scientific requirements.
(I) cultural bias:
individual freedom/autonomy/growth = individualistic cultures, whereas collectivist cultures value needs of group/community e.g. China & importance of belongingness.
(A) revolutionised counselling techniques:
client-centred therapy like counselling came from humanism, which integrates methods of CBT. meta-analysis showed significant improvement in clients compared to other therapies.

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