Nutritional aids- supplementation

Creatine

Legal

Increase PC stores in muscle- in form of powder/tablet 

Very high intensity energy production eg. weightlifters, sprinters 

+= increased PC stores= more fuel for high intensity training (ATP-PC system)

Increased intensity and duration of training 

Increased maximum and explosive strength 

-= increased weight gain

Increased water retention 

Muscle cramps and gastrointestinal problems 

Long-term effects unclear 

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Caffeine

Legal

Stimulates CNS and increases breakdown of FFAs for aerobic energy production 

Found in tea/coffee, energy drinks or tablet form

+= increased nervous stimulation

Increased focus/concentration 

Increased metabolism of fats

Preservation of muscle glycogen 

Increased endurance performance 

-= diuretic effect= dehydration 

Insomnia and anxiety 

Gastrointestinal problems 

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Bicarbonate

Legal

Alkaline which acts as a buffer to neutralise a rise in acidity in blood stream 

Intense anaerobic activity 

Soda loading- ingesting large amounts of bicarbonate in advance of an event to make blood more alkaline= increasing anaerobic endurance by limiting lactic acid build-up 

+= increased buffering capacity 

Increased tolerance to LA= delaying OBLA

Increased intensity and duration of performance 

-= gastrointestinal problems 

Unpleasant taste causing nausea

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Nitrates

Legal

Inorganic compounds which dilate blood vessels and reduce blood pressure 

Endurance athletes eg. 5000m- close to lactate threshold 

Consumed by eating root veg, beetroot and greens 

+= decreased BP

Increased blood flow 

Increased intensity and duration of performance 

Delays fatigue 

-= headaches, dizziness, light headedness 

Long-term effects unclear

Possible carcinogenic risk 

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