New Imperialism Post 1945

New Imperialism Post 1945. BRITAIN

Immediate post-war years:

Second colonial occupation of Southeast Asia.

British sought to restore empire through new imperialism.

Malaya an important possession as it was:

1. principle dollar earner.

2. front line state in cockpit of international rivalry.

R. F. Holland. Emergencies and Disorders. 2012

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New Imperialism Post 1945. BRITAIN

British Returned to Southeast Asia after the Middle East.

Plans for direct rule and promises of self-government.

Resumed responsibility of supervising reinstitution of colonialism in Indonesia and Indochina.

Malaya plagued by lawlessness and ethnic conflict.

Differed from Burma:

1. Enhanced value after 1945.

2. Base of British power in a region of contiguous great power rivalries.

No Economic, political or military pressure as there was in Burma.

Mines and plantations rehabilitated.

Britain on it's guard, avoid humiliation of 1941-42.

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New Imperialism Post 1945. BRITAIN

Duff Cooper

M. E Denning

Lord Killearn

Malcom MacDonald

All to secure post-war settlement, bringing pressure on colonial powers.

USA indifferent to affairs at the time.

1945-48 amounted to Britain's crucial moments in Southeast Asia.

Fred R. Von Der Mehden. SEA 1930-70. 1974

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New Imperialism Post 1945. NETHERLANDS & FRANCE

Task of readjustment proved difficult, politicially, not economically.

Not committed to emergence of post-colonial world of states as the British were.

Difficult to reach for colonial independence due to multi-party politics.

Coalitions depended on formulae.

Nicholas Tarling. Imperialism in Southeast Asia. 2001

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New Imperialism Post 1945. NETHERLANDS

Return depended on the attitude of other powers aswell as Indonesians.

British anxious to see the Dutch restored.

Could only be done by collaborating with nationalists.

Difficult for the Dutch to accept.

No pro-Dutch guerillas.

Imperialism of post-war phase may differ as earlier imperialisms would have done.

Nicholas Tarling. IBID

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New Imperialism Post 1945. NETHERLANDS

Dutch reassertion made difficult, maybe impossible, due to:

1. Changes made in its absense.

2. Dutch inability to adjust them.

1945-46, Dutch dependent on British for restoration of Eastern possessions.

British anxious after surrender of Emperor Hirohito.

Attlee's govt did not want to add to Holland's penury.

But, neither did it want to commit men and materials.

A. J Stockwell. Cambridge History of SEA. 1999

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New Imperialism Post 1945. FRANCE

French reassumd power in the South after brief fighting.

America promoted France to negotiate, but after humiliation of war, they didn't want to.

1947, France regained control over main towns, highways, some of coastal and delta ricelands.

Geneva Convention 1954. Ceasefire agreement.

Independence to Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam.

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New Imperialism Post 1945. ALL POWERS

Whole colonial administrative, economic and social structure was fatally disrupted.

Southeast Asian people were:

1. Armed and trained for combat.

2. Experienced in admin and politics.

3. Committed to independence.

4. Unwilling to accept old social orders.

5. Organised in political activity.

6. Less respectful of old colonial power.

Fred R. Von Der Mehden. Southeast Asia 1930-70. 1974

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