Nazi Germany

  • Created by: KSScout
  • Created on: 04-03-19 18:07

Rise of Extremism

  • Millions unemployed, starving + desperate (1930-1933)
  • So many turned to extreme political parties that offered solutions to their problems
  • 1930 + 1933, Nazi and communist support soared
  • 1932, parties wanted to destroy Weimar Republic- had 319/608 seats in Reichstag
  • Workers turned to communism
  • Government constantly changing
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  • Bitter after WW1
  • Felt Weimar Republic had sold Germany out by ending the war too soon, and agreeing to TOV
  • 1919, joined German Workers' Party + later became leader
  • Changed party name to Nationalist Socialist German Workers' Party, A.K.A. Nazi Party
  • Won people over via charisma and personality
  • Blamed Jews for Germany's problems
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Treaty of Versailles (TOV)

  • Territory taken from Germans + in compensation (bill of 6.6 million marks)
  • Armed forces limited (100,000 soldiers)
  • Germans left humiliated
  • Republic failed to pay first installment to France so French invaded Ruhr region of Germany + stole natural resources and industry
  • Economy crumbled + inflation rose -almost losing complete value-
  • Middle class into poverty
  • 1924, Dawes Plan restored value of currency by depending on loans from America
  • 1929, Wall Street Crash made German economy chaos
  • Unemployment rose to 6 million + lots of unrest as people starved again
  • 1929, 1st installment of 2 million marks
  • Could pay in 'kind' - coal, wood, materials + cash -
  • Most paid like this ^^
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  • Flood of paper money but no goods manafactured after strike
  • Prices out of control - loaf of bread cost 250 marks in January 1923-
  • Currency worthless
  • Uprisings as groups struggled to take power from Weimar Republic
  • Nazis + Black Reichswehr rebelled in Berlin and Munich
  • Communists took over two governments (Saxony + Thurginia), along with declaring Rhineland independant
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Members of the Nazi Party- Adolf Hitler

  • 1921, head of Nazi Party
  • 1923, tries to overthrow government in Munich but put in prison - wrote Mein Kampf here -
  • January 1933, effective political party
  • 1920s, struggled to win seats in Reichstag
  • Mein Kampf became a national bestseller
  • 1932, flew around Germany to deliver speeches
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Joseph Goebbels

  • Part of Nazi propaganda team
  • Made posters, newspapers, radio broadcasts + government film messages before beginning of a film
  • Used motto 'Bread and Work' during Great Depression which appealed to demands of population, who were starving
  • Used short, bold titles
  • Had deep anti-semetic views
  • Portrayed as god-like, supreme being
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Wilhelm Frick

  • 1933, made part of cabinet w/ Goring
  • Made Minister of the Interior w/ responsibility for German life in society
  • 1930-1931 worked in Germany's state parliament
  • Used his powers to promote Nazis into important positions + to spread Nazi ideas in schools
  • Helped shape racial policy in party
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Rudolph Hess

  • 3rd in power to Hitler
  • Deputy leader of party
  • Job was to sign off all new legislation to ensure it followed Nazi ideology
  • Worked in Munich at HQ to make sure everyone followed same goals
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Ernst Rohm

  • Leader of SA (A.K.A. Storm department/'brownshirts')
  • Originally set up to act as bodyguards to Hitler but was turned into Nazi's private army
  • Took charge of SA in 1930 + increased numbers to 400,000 'Stormtroopers' by 1933
  • Used to intimidate voters + other political parties
  • During election stood outside voting booths to intimidate voters to vote for the Nazis
  • Physically attacked Communists
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Hermann Goring

  • Ex-fighter pilot
  • 2nd in power to Hitler
  • Joined Cabinet w/ Hitler + Frick in 1933
  • Controlled police in Prussia, largest German region
  • 1933, formed Gestapo who would spy on Germans to stop opposition
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Heinrich Himmler

  • Led S.S. (A.K.A. Protection Sqaudron/'Blackshirts')
  • Started as group of Nazi volunteers providing security for party leader - same as SA -
  • End of 1933, S.S. had about 200,000 members
  • Strict entry requirements of being a Nazi
  • Developed methods of surveillance + terror
  • Ran concentration camps + spied on people
  • Scared people
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Nazi Demands

Autarky- Country completely self-sufficient

Lebensraum- Able to expand (living space)

Social Darwinism- Aryan race

  • Brot und Arbeit ('Bread and Work')
  • Fight for Lebensraum- needed land to grow food + believed Slavs didn't need that land
  • Build Nationalism- Germany should be run by Germans for Germans
  • Foreign influence should be removed
  • Believed services, e.g. water + electricity, should be provided by Government for benefit of nation rather than individual company profit
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Establishing Dictatorship (January-July 1933)

  • JANUARY, HITLER BECOMES CHANCELLOR- can be kicked out president still
  • March, another election called to gain more seats in Reichstag to pass laws
  • Majority vote needed against social democrats + communists
  • 28th February, Reichstag Fire + was blamed on Communists
  • Nazi press claimed fire was signal for Communists to rise
  • Angry mobs + hostages taken from middle class
  • 24 hours, Nazis controlled the press, freedom of public assembly, tapped telephones, broke into desks + read letters
  • 4,000 Communists arrested after week of fire- making of concentration camps (Dachau)
  • Emergency Decree declared
  • Nzis could arrest without warrant
  • Produced postcards + photographs of Hitler to depict him as a normal working/middle class man- "A man of the people"
  • Politics unstable + democracy disappeared
  • 1930-1932, Nazi members had doubled
  • President Hindenberg doesn't trust Hitler
  • Hitler turns down offer of vice-chancellor
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Establishing Dictatorship (January-July 1933)

  • Oscar von Hindenberg convinces president to give Hitler chancellor
  • Another election called
  •  7th March, 44% of vote to Nazis
  • Enabling Act- dispend constitution + have powers for 4 years
  • Hitler persuades Catholic party to vote for Nazis so they could keep their political party + religion
  • 441/934 seats, gained majority vote
  • During speech about enabling act, ** around outside of hall + intimidating voters- 94 people oppose
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Reichstag Fire

  • 27th February 1933
  • Marinus Van Der Lubbe- young dutch Communist + claimed he set the building alight
  • Nazis blamed all Communists
  • Hitler says that there will be "no mercy now"
  • Van der Lubbe killed January 1934
  • Act was the start of Communist civil war- claimed by Nazis
  • Hitler persuaded Hindenberg to pass Reichstag Fire Decree- restricted civil liberties, increased power of Government, harsher punishments
  • 4,000 Communists arrested + killed
  • Meetings of Communists banned
  • Allowed Nazis to remove their biggest threat + gain a majority vote
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