Music in the 20th Century- EXPRESSIONISM

Perepitie- 1909, Schoenberg

  • A high level of dissonance
  • Extreme contrasts of dynamics
  • Constantly changing textures
  • ‘Distorted’ melodies and harmonies
  • Angular melodies with wide leaps
  • very large orchestra with some unusual instruments such as the piccolo
  • each of the motifs is based on a hexachord
  • free rondo form
  • imitation between the different insruments in the middle section to build the piece up
  • final section there is an orchestral tutti, texture is homophonic
  • extreme dynamics
  • extreme ranges of insruments
  • 3/4, 2/4 and 4/4
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Music in the 20th Century- MINIMALSISM

Electric Counterpoint- 1987, Steve Reich

  • Layers of ostinati
  • Constantly repeated patterns that are subjected to gradual changes
  • Layered textures
  • Interlocking repeated phrases and rhythms
  • Diatonic harmony
  • tonal ambiguity- E Minor, no d sharp
  • use of technology, speakers, microphone, panning effects, amps
  • gradual build up of texture
  • resultant melody
  • fade out
  • complex, polyphonic texture
  • opening monophonic- guitar two starts
  • static harmony
  • very fast throughout, metronome mark 192
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Music in the 20th Century- MUSICAL THEATRE

Something's Coming- 1957, Leonard Bernstein

  • a fusion of Classical, Blues and Jazz
  • jazz harmony
  • syncopated rhythms
  • push rythms, anticipating the beat
  • extensive use of short riffs
  • cross rhythms
  • layered texture, melody with accompaniment
  • tenor male voice
  • blues notes
  • syllabic melody
  • repeated melodic ideas- ostinatos, riffs
  • D Major modulating to C Major
  • fast throughout
  • pinaissimo to start, gradually building up the fade out
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Western Classical Music- And the Glory of The Lord

And the Glory of The Lord- 1741, Handel

  • orchestra often doubles the vocal lines
  • 4 main motifs
  • A Major, trrple metre, lively tempo makes the piece lively- word setting, looking forward to the coming of the Lord
  • homophonic (alto voice starts the piece), monophonic (all voices at the end), polyphonic
  • diatonic harmony
  • syllabic and mellismatic setting of the words
  • baroque
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Western Classical Music- Raindrop Prelude

Raindrop Prelude- 1839, Chopin

  • romantic period
  • written during a storm (progmattic). The repeated A flats in the left hand represent raindrops- dominanat pedal
  • expressive and emotional
  • melody with accompaniment
  • monophonic- bar 82 and 83
  • ternary form
  • texture is thicker in section B due to melody in chords in the left hand
  • shorter repeat of A section, only 6 bars followed by codetta
  • occasion chromatic harmony adds colour
  • sections A and B end with imperfect cadences. Whole piece ends with perfect cadence
  • 4/4
  • A= D Flat major   B= C Sharp minor     A= D Flat major
  • rubato throughout
  • quiet dynamics. Crescendos and diminuendos. Section B is much louder
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Western Classical Music- Symphony No 40, first mov

Symphony No 40, first movement- 1788, Mozart

  • sonata form
  • classical orchestra
  • homophonic texture- bar 85 and at end
  • development section modulates to B Major and E Minor
  • diatonic harmony throughout
  • 1st is rhythmic and repetitive. 2nd subject more lyrical 
  • octave doubling between 1st and 2nd violins
  • canon in bar 81 between the strings
  • simple rhythms with occasional syncopation to build up momentum
  • G Minor
  • Molto Allgro. 4/4
  • Bar 28, full orchestra forte
  • sudden contasts fo dynamics
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Popular Music in Context- All Blues- Modal Jazz

All Blues- Miles Davies, 1957

  • solo with accompaniment
  • 12 bar blues progression
  • 12 bar blues chord sequnce makes up harmony with added jazz chords
  • mixolydian mode
  • improvisation- meldoy develops each time,more complex, more chromatic
  • syncopated rhythms. Swing rhythms. 
  • 6/4
  • fidds on saxophones in 3rds
  • in G
  • 156 beats per min- jazz waltz
  • trumpet uses harmon mute
  • fade out
  • frontline instruments- trumpet, alto sax, tenor sax
  • drum kit is played with brushes at the start

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Popular Music in Context- Grace - Folk Rock

Grace- Jeff Buckley, 1994

  • solo with accompaniment
  • power chords, sliding, parallel chords used
  • some dissonant harmonies
  • piece begins in low in Buckleys register. Melisma used on the words Love and Fire
  • melody extends in verse two. Buckley uses falcetto to reach a top B
  • final verse towards the end is sang an octave higher than other verses
  • mostly syllabic vocalisation
  • E Minor- ambiguious opening, starts on F Minor chord
  • 12/8, 64 dotted crochets per/min
  • dynamics are largely unvaried
  • drop d tuning- e string to a d (instrumentation) 

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Popular Music in Context- Why Does My Heart Feel S

Why Does My Heart Feel So Bad?- Moby (Richard Hall), 1999

  • techno dance music
  • A Minor
  • breakdown section provides contrast, sometimes silence
  • build up of texture at beginning
  • verse and chorus structure
  • Amazing Emily Goes Dancing Crying Fun! - Am, Em, Gm, Dm, C, F
  • diatonic harmony
  • based on two samples from black gospel choirs
  • 4/4
  • syncopated rhythms in piano, vocals and strings
  • Am, bit choruses are in C
  • dynamics build throughout piece. All instruments frop out providing contrast
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World Music- Skye Walking Song

Skye Walking Song- Capercaille, 2000

  • celtic fusion
  • low alto voice
  • pentatonic melody, G, A, B, D, E
  • heterophonic texture. Monophonic opening. Contrasting texture as vocal lines are unaccompanied/ full band plays
  • call and response- a work song to relieve the boredom, keep the workers in time
  • diatonic throughout. Modal feel
  • mainly syllabic. Only two main phrases with vocables are used
  • cross rhthms. Syncopated rhythms in vocal melody
  • 12/8
  • G Major. Lack of dominant D chord suggests a more modal tonality
  • moderate tempo throughout
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World Music- Rag Desh

1) Anoushka Shankar- 2001

  • sitar
  • based on Raga
  • tabla drums accompany
  • ALAP- slow intro, free rhythm, sitar only
  • GAT- fixed composition, moderate tempo. Improvisations are based on the tal
  • JHALA- lively, fast tempo. Sitar is strummed to create rhythmic excitement
  • Uses the JHAPTAL(10) and the TINTAL(16)

2) Chiranji Lai Tanwar: Male Voice- 2004

  • sarod is plucked, sarangi is bowed, pakhwa drum, small cymbals, tabla, voice
  • KEHERWA TAL: 2+2+2+2(8)
  • ALAP- slow intro, no pulse. Sarangi and voice intoduce notes of the raga
  • BHAJAN- song in verse form. Dynamics and tempo increase. Short solos for sarangi and sarod. Tabla joins in
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World Music- Rag Desh

3) Steve and Benjy- Bansuri, esraj and tabla- 2004

  • ALAP- slow. Bansuri becomes more developed, plays the notes of the raga. The esrag takes over. Instruments alternate improvise phrases. Drone on the tampura. No regualr pulse
  • GAT 1- slow. Bansurie melody over the drone. Dialouge between players, repeats 3 times
  • Fixed compostion- becomes more aggitated. Instruments swap function
  • GAT 2- fast. Uses ekatal cycle. Bansuri more developed. Tabla solos. Bansuri plays tans. Piece ends with three tihais
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World Music- Yiri

Yiri- Koko

  • opening is monophonic
  • graduall texture build up, layered texture
  • hetrophonic texture
  • based on the heptatonic scale in G flat major. Short patters, call and response
  • ostinato ideas on drums. Syncopated ideas, cross rhythms
  • G Flat Major, modal effect
  • slow tempo intro. 
  • 4/4. Moderate tempo and constant tempo throughout.
  • largely unvaried dynamics, texture determines dynamics
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