What are Arêtes and pyramidal peaks?
- Arête :knife-edge ridge. Formed: when two neighbouring corries run back to back. Each glacier erodes either side of the ridge; edge becomes steeper ; the ridge becomes narrower.
How are glaciers formed-Corries-Cirques?
- Corries/Cirques-Starting point of glacier.
- Corrie-Arm-chair-Shaped hollow.High on mountain:With steep back;side walls.
- After glaciation:Hollow is filled with lake/tarn(small).
Action of gravity means: Ice moves down the hill. As it goes, it sticks to back walls and plucks rock from surface. Rocks on the backwalls are loosened by freeze-thaw action.
A gap between the wall and the ice develops, called: bergschrund.
Ice moving with loose rock acts like sandpaper:Deepens the hollow by abrasion. Most erosion is where the weight of the ice is the heaviest. Stones frozen in base of the ice grind or abrade the corrie base, deepening it.
Some of this debris is deposited at edge of the corrie, building up :Lip.
Processes create a characteristic rounded, armchair shaped hollow with: Steep back wall. When ice in corrie melts; circular lake is formed at the bottom of the hollow.Known as a tarn.
What are the process of glacial erosion?
- Plucking:Occurs when rocks/stone becomes frozen to base/side of glacier;are plucked when
ground/rock face as glacier moves:Leaves jagged-face behind.
- Abrasion:Occurs when rocks/stones become embedded in side of glacier.Rubbed against bottom of glacier,at side of glacier;as glacier moves.
- Causes wearing away of landscape:Leaved behind smooth polished surfaces:May have scratches(Strations).
- Strations:Carved out by regular debris embedded in base of glacier.
How do local people use the Alps?
Mostly on the valley floor: Flatter, more Sheltered, warmer, with deeper soils.Traditionally dairying.Main crops re hay and cereals with some vines and fruit in warmer areas.
Use upland pastures
Hep and Industry
Industry needing large amounts of electricity, e.g. sawmills, smelters, locate near to HEP stations which generate cheap electricity from the fast flowing streams
Traditional industries include clock making, paper and furniture in summer.
Conifers cover the slopes up to about 1800 metres. The wood is used for fuel, building chalets and for paper-making.
Melting of Alpine glaciers and speed at which they move acts as excellent indicator for climate scientists to use as a measure of how much the planet is warming.
Unsustainable methods of managing mountains
- Impact of climate change is: Causes glaciers to melt. Causes problems with longer term sustainability of water supply from mountain environment
- Higher altitude areas increases:Risk of malaria and other diseases in mountain environments.
Sustainable managment for mountains in the future.
- Sustainable management of mountain environments would: involve using mountains for energy production.
- Hydroelectric and geothermal energy would be considered a sustainable use of mountain environments: Would not release further CO2 into the atmosphere:Reducing average global temperatures in the future.
- Mountains attractive to tourists using ecotourism,would sustain mountains in the future.
Disadavantages of ski tourism in Alps
Increased use of snow cannons: massive pressure on water supply in some low lying resorts.
- Massive energy requirement to spread snow onto the slopes for skiing.
Movement of: water onto slopes can negatively impact plants and soil.
Ski installations do little for the visual attractiveness of the Alps: and large ski runs displaces many plant and animal species.
Advantages of ski tourism
Creation of employment oppurtunies
Reduction of migration to larger Alpine urban areas
Conservation and protection of the Alpine natural environment
Improvements in infrastructure and services in Alpine mountain environment
Local Alpine products and cultural identity maintained.
Fold mountains: Occur near convergent or compressional plate boundaries. Examples of fold mountains:The Alps, Rockies, Andes and Himalayas.
- Area of sea separates two plates.Sediments settle on sea floor in depressions:Geosynclines
- These sediments gradually become compressed into sedimentary rock
- Two plates move towards each other again;layers of sedimentary rock sea floor
become crumpled and folded
- Sedimentary Rock rises above sea level as range of fold mountains.
What impact does ice have on mountain landscapes?
- Glacier:Mass of Ice.Moves very Slow down hill.
- Found on high-altitude mountains across globe.
- Found on high-altitude moutains on Equator.
- Can be found at:Low altitude in high latitude close to North pole;South Pole.
- Glaciation:Formation of glaciers; process they shape landcapes around them.
Process glaciation affects Landscapes:Erosion.Transportation,
Economic activity in the mountains.
- Mountains and mountain ranges:Used for logging,Recreation,Minning,and Cattle Grazing.
- Economic activity is limited by:Height, Steepness,Latitude,Terrain and Weather.
- Mountains are used by Tourists,Multinational Mineral Companies, and Idigenous groups.
- Idigenous groups:The Aymara(The Andes)Live as subsitence farmers.
- Tourism:Offers government large source of foreign income.Provides employment oppurtunities.
- Multinational Groups:Keen to exploit rich mineral in moutains; to make profits.
Human Activity in Mountains:Population Density
- 10% of the world's population live in Mountains.
- Mountains are less preferable for human settlement:Weather is harsher.Little land suitable for agriculture.
- Decreasing atmospheric pressure: Less protection against solar radiation.
- Less oxgen for breathing.
Age:138-165 million years old.
How it formed:Pacific Ocean plate plunged under South America.
How do they affect the weather:Block winds and rain clouds.Rains on east side.West side:Dusty desert.
Climate:In the north:Hot;humid.Close to Equator.In south:Rains.Close-Antartica.
How do humans affect the desert:Men hunt for:Gold.Silver,Copper.Erodes soil;hurts plants of Andes.Cut trees.Shelter: Andean Animals
Human activity surrounding fold mountains
- Winter sports: Skiing in resorts such as Chamonix.
- Climbing and hiking in: summer months.
- Summer lakeside holidays, eg Lake Garda.
- Agriculture - takes place mainly on south facing slopes and includes cereals, sugar beet, vines and fruits.
- Forestry - coniferous forests : fuel and building.
- Communications - roads and railways follow valleys.
- Hydroelectric power (HEP) - steep slopes and glacial meltwater are ideal for generating HEP. Hydroelectric accounts for 60 per cent of Switzerland's electricity production.
What impact does water have on mountain Landscapes
- Mountain Chains:Formed by movement of techtonic process;movement of earth's crust.
- Uplifted Crust:Atttacked by water from:Planet's atmosphere;as it flows over crust as river.
What are mountain climates like?(Freeze-Thaw;Scree
- Scree Slopes:Collection of broken rock fragments.Found on slopes of mountains.
- Scree Slopes:When Water(From rainfall) becomes trapped in crack/joint in rock.Freezes. Ice expands:9-10%.Putting pressure on rock.X2:Rock weakens.Shatters into angular fragments.
What are Inter-Locking Spurs.
- As river erodes landscape in upper-course.Creates second Land feature:Inter-Locking Spurs.
- Formed as water in river winds, bends to avoid areas of hard rock.
- Inter-Locking Spurs:Looks like inter-locking zip.
What are mountain climates like?
Three things affect mountain climates
- Relief:Impacts the amount of rain fall in mountain enviroment.Prevaling wind direction.Mountain range air is forced to rise.Water Vapour condenses bringing cloud and rain.
- Relief:Leeward side of mountain:Air contains less water.Precipitation is likely.
- Impacts temprature in human enviroment.
- Northern Hemphisphere:South facing slope gets more sunshine,during day.
- Northern facing slopes:Shaded.
- Southern-Facing Slopes:Hotter than Northern-Facing Slopes.
- Has impact on temprature:Temprature will decrease with height.
- Atmosphere is better at trapping heat at sea level.
Mountain Enviroment Exam Practise
Justify why mountains can be described as extreme(2 marks)
Describe three characteristics in mountain enviroments(3 marks)
Suggest reasons why mountain enviroments are often presented in the media such as Paintings,Music,Literature,and Film.(4Marks)
Explain why mountains are challenging for different types of people(6Marks)
To What Extent are you pessimistic or Optimistic about the future of moutain enviroment(8Marks)
Explain how climatic change may cause problems for people in mountain enviroments(4Marks)
U-Shaped Valley. V-Shaped Valley
Once enough ice has formed: Glaciers will move slowly through the valley system: created by water.
- Once the ice retreats: glacier creates distinctive U-shaped valley:Have flat floor,steep sides.
Glacial ice melts:Different types of rock; laid down that have been carried along by the glacier. Piles of these deposits are called moraines.
Cultural Representations of Mountains
Mountains are used in cultural Representations:Film,Photography,Expedition Accounts,Poetry.
- Aim to use characteristics of mountain(Natural Landscape,Climate Extremes,) to create particular ideas in mind of viewer.
- Example:William Blake:'There are great things done,when men and mountains meet'.
Physical Procesess in V/U Shaped Mountains.
Mountain Enviroments:High-levels of precipation-Start of the Earth's river systems.
- River moves down upper-course;erodes down-ward through process of abrasion.