The Sun Rising
- Young lothario day; intensity of ego
- Little presence of women; egocentric and boastful
- No overt declaration of love
- Strongly intellectual conceit, deisgned to impress
- Challenges concentions of Petrarchan love
- Reverses aubade as irreverent address to the sun
- Conceit; sun as old man who wakes people
- Go and wake resentful apprentices/ court huntsmen/ ants
- Insulting/impudent tone "saucy wretch" "busie old fool"
- Transcendental moment in couplet; love knows no seasons/times because it has timeless reality
The Sun Rising 2
- Conceit: geographical discovery/ polictics; world is pale comparison of power and riches in his bed
- Sun beams not strong; easily blocked by closing eyes, but he wont lose sight of his lover
- Asks sun where riches of spice/gold are to be found
- All of the power of kings/glory/riches lie in speaker's bed
- Transcendental moment: "All here in one bed lay"
- Conceit: political imagery; lover is all states and all leaders
- Royalty only mimics their power/wealtg like alchemy (pretence of science)
- Sun is only half as happy as they are because its single
- Old sun would ahve easier life by only warming lovers' bedrooms; centre of earth
- Their bed os centre of sun's orbit; their room is everything in the world
The Sun Rising 3
- Highly patterned
- carying line lenght - shifting punchy brevity to elegance
- Complicated, elegant rhyme sceheme; argument soldified with rhyming couplet
- Shifting rhythm
A Valediction of Weeping - Donne
- Organic concepts follow logically
- As part of D's service as gentleman of court he had to make long voyages
- Conceit: water
- Conceit: navigation
- Compares speed of making globe to microcosmic world which the lover's tears can create
- As woman considers the distnace they will be apart, the tears swell in size, risking an "overflow" flooding their world
- If she keeps crying, it will kill him emotionally and metaphorically by causing flood; deluge will kill him
A Valediction of Weeping 2
- Raises lover to goldy status "more than moon" who can drown him with tears/cause high winds by her sighs
- Sighing takes away oxygeb; "Who'er sighs most is cruellest, and hastes the other's death"
- Reference to sea voyage/travelling
- Quatrain, couplet, triple rhyme
- Last 2 lines of verse summarise conceit
- Monosyllabic and colloquial lang = sincerity
- Distance makes us stronger - Gatsby and Daisy, Correlli and Mandras
Batter my Heart - Donne
- One of Donne's collections of 'Divine Poems'
- Written in middle period of life; years of disappointment, ill-health, financial insecurity
- Speaker tries to examine and discipline his mind with willful display D's intelligence
- Speaker pre-occupied with fear of Calvinist beliefs of pre-destined fate
- Vitality of earlier poems replaced with despair
- Aural poem; sounds like assualt on castle - plosive alliteration/ onomatopoeia
- Conceit: God as sieging army/ soul as a castle
- Violent presentation of God; Old Testament style
- Wants God to "force, to break, blow, burn" - masochistic
- "usurp'd town" - biblical reference to Jericho, town of tainted people, sieged by God
- References to being more aligned with the devil; 'to another due", "bethroth'd unto your enemy"
- Marital references: "proves weak or untrue", "divorce me, untie or break that knot again"
- Closing paradoxical argument: speaker "never shall be free, nor ever chaste, unless you ravish me" (subjugate me to god's will/ spiritually ****"
Batter my Heart 2
- Petrarchan sonnet form is fitting as main theme of poem is desire
- Poem becomes intimate portrayal of D's sould persuadig God to enter his sinful life and grant him salvation
- Donne takes analogy of passion and spiritual fufilment to its extreme in his equatio of religious devotion and sexual assault
- Repeated stress and plosive 'b" of the trochaic "Batter my Heart" = dramatic immediacy
- Forecful rhythm f-shadows violence of later imagert
- Colloquial tone + direct address to God = reinforces personal nature of poem
- Repeated accents and uneven stresses create a contorted meter which emphasies the masochistic nature of the contrite speaker
- Soul is anthropomorphsoses as female figure - fshadows the audacious anthropomorphism of God as seducer
- Transition to imabic pentamenter in final line s= spekaer found spiritual resolution/peace
Elegy 20: To His Mistress Going to Bed - Donne
- Donne praises sensual pleasure of sex but it is not a love poem
- Speaker only wants to have sex with woman; lust poem
- Presented structurally in continuous verse + rhyming couplets; continuity and driving rhythm comparable to sex; sense of confidence in his argument
- Unstaisfying lack of female voice
- Opens with repeated imperative; "Come, Madam, come, all rest my powers defy"
- Domineering and demanding lover; "Off with that girdle", "Off with that happy busk" "My America! My new found-land""Then where my hand is set, my seal shall be"
- Possesive jealousy; "That th'eyes of busy fools may be stopped there"
- Base sexual references; "Is tir'd with standing though he never fight" "our flesh upright" "License my roving hands, and let them go before, behind"
- Grows impatient with romantic imagery of courtly love used to woo her so makes robust comparison between her jewelled heapiece and hair revelaed in her nakedness
- Final shocking instructions: "As liberally, as to a midwife, shew thy self"
Elegy 20: To His Mistress Going to Bed 2
- Superficial nature only wanting sex - link to superficial society of GG and lack of rships
- Base physiclaity and lust - link to Pelagis and Mandras' lustful rship
- Persuasive forcefulness for sex - link to The Flea, To his Coy Mistress
The Good Morrow - Donne
- Defies conventions of Petrarchan love in theme of requited/returned love
- Takes you on journey from domestic breastfeeding to the spiritual/philosophical
- D creates central empahtic voice that argues life without love is worthless
- Series of questions with declarative answers
- What did we do before we were in love?
- Moves from clumsy, immature sex to adult love; rejects past loves as foolish, only shadows of the relaity he finds in his lover
- Compares himself + lover to 7 Christians from Epheus who walked in cave and woke 187yrs later ; time without her was like the 187 yrs
- Blissful contentment; celebrating waking in bed together
- No fear of commitment or adultery ; "Which watch not one another out of fear"
- Love balances all feelings; "For love, all other sights control" - perfect harmoney
- Totality of experience of true love; "...and makes one little room"; room is whole universe
- Uninterested in "sea-discoverers" - his world is his love + him; fusion of their worlds
The Good Morrow 2
- Their world of love is so unearthly that its hemispheres are free from coldness/decay; "Without sharp north, without declining west?"
- Medieval belief that death/decay/disease results from unbalanced body; their love is perfectly balanced and so eternal; "Love so alike that none do slacken, none can die."
- Modern day audience can relate to all-encompassing love; Correlli and Pelagia
The Collar - Herbert
- Speaker is angry and feels limited by God, wants to ejoy "double pleasures"
- Becomes reoslute decision to acheive maximum pleasure, but at peak of his anger, God speaks to him and his faith is restored
- Diffifult for C21st reader; not as religious/ aware of religious customs
- Iambic meter with varied line lenghts; takes form of arguments; random form is conversational
- Random form reads like histrionic soliloquy + shows indiscipline of religious spirit
- Restraints; "collar", "cage", "rope"
- Harvest; "wine", "corn", "fruit"
- Service to God
- The Collar - clothing to control; role of the priest to God
- Opening is abrupt, dramatic, evoking violent action in colloquial manner; "I struck the board..."
- 2nd stanza takes on more personal notes. Image of "harvest", the poet lamnets that his only harvest has been a thorn
- 3rd stanza lamentation continues, compares his life to those who enjoy worldy pleasures
- 4th stanza, more aggressive, criticisng God's view of right/wrong, wants to gorge on pleasure
The Collar 2
- 5th stanza poet loses hold on his argument, declares to quit being a priest. Reveals he cannot shoulder the responsibility of the job; "He that forbears, to suit and serve his need, deserves his load"
- Last stanza is a resultant anticlimax. Speaker comes out of his "pettie thoughts" ans hears God calling "Childe", to which he repsonds "My Lord"
- Instantly the distressed speaker is silenced and the discontent passed
- God's presence exposes the hollowness of his complaints
- Qus + many short lines = fitful/unenven quality with no fluency of movement until final quatrain
- Past tense = poem of reflection/ discernment/analysis, dramatic moment relived
- R'ship with God is often unfufilling; like Carlo's rship with God and Batter My Heart
- God acts as a restraint to reckless enjoyment of "double pleasures"; GG society needs guiding hand of God as they endlessly enjoy worldly pleasures but are empty, like the speaker's complaints
- Shares strong sense of argument like many metaphysical poets
The Pulley - Herbert
- Central contextual point of Pandora's box; God gave Pandora a box not to open but she did and so released innumerbale plagues and sorrows on the world
- Here, Herbert says that when God made man he poured all his blessings on him, except "rest" otherwise man would worship the gifts and not God
- Process of pulling man back to God conveyed through "the pulley" conceit; strong influence of science at time of writing
- Surprising H conveys a religious notion through a scientific image; the 2 did not fit easily
- Simple, everyday language to convey complex set of ideas
- Reader will come to realise that God is only seeking whats best for humans; to choose the right path
- Herbert is saying God has created man, and all humans make mistakes, so God has craeted a metaphorical "pulley" that reminds humans who they should worship etc
- God acting as guiding moral pulley: GG society lacks moral compass and presence of God
The Definition of Love - Marvell
- Directed to Mary Fairfax, his beloved yet higher class tutee, he could never be with
- Ontological poem;
- Neo-platonic view of love; the physical is less important than spiritual - Carlo&Fran, D&G, Nick&Jordan lacked the spiritual
The Definition of Love 2
- 1st stanza; immeditely sets up love as an impossible one; "begotten by despair upon impossibility"
- 2nd stanza; "magnanimous despair" was what showed him a love "divine"; oxymoron the love is more beautiful because he can't have it; through despair he sees how precious love is
- 3rd/4th stanza; fate sen how perfect they are together and has come "betwixd"and it would be "her ruin" if they were together - implies love supersedes all, could bring down "tyrannic" fate.
- M compares fate to "iron"/"steel" showing how immovable fate is
- 5th stanza; compares lovers to the earth's "poles", making the distance between them insurmountable but vital. Earth spins on poles and would lose direction without them; love as guiding force - emotion crucial to life
- Takes on neo-platonic view of love, where physical love, Eros, is seen as beneath the spiritual
- 6th stanza; "to join" the lovers would spell disaster
- 7th stanza; sloping, oblique line = love not as true as theirs as those lovers will meet and love each other. M&beloved are "truly parallel", doomed to forever follow but never be together
- 8th stanza; conclusion
- Note never refers to beloved by name; only talks about the emotion
- Poem meant for male intellectual coterie, admired for his profiency in conceits + lang
A Letter to Her Husband - Bradstreet
- B writes letter to her husband, who is away on business
- Tender/intimate poem exploring love from a woman's perspective
- B resented misognist Puritan belief that woman were intellectually and overall inferior to men
- Conceits: navigation, astronomy, nature
- Written in rhyming couplets; unity of 2- can't think of herself without him;
- Intentional epistle (letter) format
- Compares husband to the seasons; husband is her sun and when he is with her its always summer; when he leaves its winter; "Return, return, sweet sol, from Capricorn"; "my chilled limbs now numbed"
- Compares missing husband to mouring; "mourn in black" - serious tone
- Accepts that situation is inevitable; "Till nature's sad decree shall call thee hence"
- Likens herself to the earth in winter, lamenting "in black" - receeding light + feeling "chilled"
- Children are respite from her forlorness, reminders of her husband; "view those fruits which through thy heart I bore?"
- Wants husband to never leave; "I wish my Sun may never set"
- Even when separated by death they will remain "both but one"
Letter to Her Husband 2
- Dead without her husband;"in this dead time" - link to Pelagia's dead time without Correlli, G's dead without Daisy; stuck in time
A Song - Carew
- Solely aesthetic poem
- Rhyming couplets create a song rhythm
- Anaphoric signifinace in poem; "Ask me no more..."; everything he needs is in this woman and that his love for her can answer all questions
- 1st stanza; Conceit = beauty of flowers is inspired by her beauty
- 2nd stanza; Heaven/gods prepare sun beams "golden atoms" to "enrich" her beautiful hair
- 3rd stanza; Nightingale doesn't hibernate, it spends winter in her throat; voice is as beuatiful + sweet as nightingale's song; "nightingale when May is past, for in your sweet dividing throat she winters"
- 4th stanza; Cosmology conceit; in the daytime the stars sit in her eyes - beautiful eyes;"For in your eyes they sit"
- 5th stanza; her beauty is eternal like the eternal "phoenix" who rises from the ashes. She's so beautiful the phoenix chooses to rise + die in her bosom; "and in your fragrant bosom dies" - she is the origin of life
A Song (Carew) 2
- Solely aesthetic poem - link to Correlli + Pelagia; she completes him; mulit-faceted/complex/intricate
- Elevates his beloved to godly status but isnt true love - link to Mandras's deification of Pelagia
A Nocturnal Upon St.Lucy's Day - Donne
- Funeral elegy; meditation upon death where D faces own mortality + offers himself as memento mori
- D spirituality = life is menaningless and only thing that matters is a good death
- Personal poem using heretical/blasphemous imagery
- "For I am every dead thing, In whom love wrought new alchemy"; he is the personification of death + love purifies the soul so D becomes noble and no longer base
- "He ruined me, and I am begot" - love ruined him because he is so grieved
- "I should prefer, If I were any beast" - prefer to be an animal as they ahve reason to live; feels like he has no reason to stay alive
- Lack of purpose in life - link to Carlo's emotional outpouring/ lamentation after death of Francesco, link to Mandras' drowning after ****** P and being disowned by his mother
- Person being a reason to live - Daisy is Gatsby's reason to live
Song - Donne
- Bitter/cynical/argumentative tone
- Sense of dialogue with someone
- Sense of lawyer presenting logical argument; high rhetoric of conveying point of view
- Anti-courtly love
- Opens with fabulous,mystic,supernatural imagery suggesting these impossibilities are as liekly as finding an honest woman; "Go and catch a falling star"
- "Nowhere lives a woman true, and fair" - there are no honest beautiful women
- "If thou find'st one, let me know" If you find a beautiful woman who is true, let me know
- "Such a pilgrimage were sweet"; it would be sweet to meet such a woman
- "Yet she will be false, ere I come, to two or three"; even if she were true, she'd betray you in 3 seconds
- Cynical view of women - compare to cynical/dishonest Gatsby society; no women are pure/true/innocent and beautiful
To His Coy Mistress - Marvell
- Speaker trying to convince woman to go to bed with him
- 3 stanzas
- "Had we but world enough, and time" - If we had enough time he would court her
- Compares her to the exotic Ganges and he is the river Humber in Hull
- "I would love you ten years before the flood" - he would love her from the beginning to the end of time
- "My vegetable love should grow" - organic, naturally developing, blossoming love + sexual reference to his errection
- "An hundred years should go to praise..." - she deserves the admiration of 1000 ages
- "you deserve this state; nor would i love at lower rate" - doesn't deserve to be loved at any less than an elevated state
- Aware of time running out; "But at my back I always hear time's winged chariot hurrying near"
- "Thy beauty shall no more be found" - her beauty won't last forever
- "Then worms shall try that long preserved virginity" - worms will take virginity in grave, if he doesn't
To His Coy Mistress 2
- "And your quaint honour turn to dust; and into ashes all my lust" - honour doesn't matter in death and all his sexual desire will burn up for all time; preserving virginity is pointless
- Tries to scare her with "The grave's a fine and private place, but none, I think, do there embrace" - idea of body in stasis, she will be forever lonely and unfulfilled
- "Now therefore, while the youthful glue sits on thy skin like morning dew" - have fun while you're young and beautiful
- "Now let us sport while we may" - lets have sex while we can because "rather at once our time devour" time is forever running out; don't waste time
- "We cannot make our sun stand still, yet we will make him run" - The sun (symbolic of time) will never stop moving, the days will carry on but whenever we have sex, we pursue time, instead of time pursuing us
- Persuading woman to have sex; The Flea
- Defying social expectations and making the most of life; Pelagia and Correlli