Memory

The psychology of memory.

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The Multi-Store Model of memory

Atkinson and Shiffrin  (1968)

  • Sensory  - attention - STM - rehearsal - LTM
                        |                        |
       Displacement  Damage and Decay 
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Sensory Memory

Sperling (1960)

  • Asked participants to recall lines of letters shown briefly to them
  • Found 3.3 letters were recalled on average
  • Sensory memory has a capacity of 9-10 items
  • The Iconic (visual) has a duration of 200-400 milliseconds
  • The echoic (auditory) has a duration of 2-3 seconds
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Short Term Memory

Miller (1956)

  • Numbers, increasing in length, are read and asked to be repeated
  • Average memory was 7±2
  • Proposed the ‘chunking’ method to increase STM
  •      ☹ Reading aloud becomes rhythmical

         ☹ Baddeley (1975) found one syllable words easier to remember

  • Found a Capacity of 7 ± 2
  • Proposed that 'Chunking' helped memory
  • Duration of 18 to 30 seconds
  • Encoded acoustically
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Long Term Memory

LTM

  • Indefinite capacity
  • Indefinite duration
  • Encoded Semantically
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