• Created by: ash8642
  • Created on: 16-04-19 20:51

Coding, Capacity, and Duration


  • Baddeley: acoustic in STM, semantic in LTM
  • Artifical stimuli - word had no personal significance


  • Jacobs: Digit Span - 9.3 digits, 7.3 letters
  • Miller: 7+-2
  • Lacking validity - extraneous variables such as distractions
  • Not so many chunks - Cowan: est. 4 chunks in STM


  • Peterson + Peterson: up to 18secs in STM
  • Bahrick et al: recog. 90% after 15yrs, 70% after 48yrs in LTM
  • Meaningless stimuli - constonant syllables
  • Higher external validity - meaningful real-life memories
  • Peterson + Peterson - may be displacement, not decay
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Multi-Store Model


  • Sensory register - iconic + echoic, brief duration + high capacity, transfer by attention
  • STM - limited capacity + duration, acoustic coding, transfer by rehearsal
  • LTM - unlimited capacity and duration, semantic coding, created through maintenance rehearsal


  • Supporting evidence - see previous card
  • More than one type of STM - KF: different STMs for auditory and visual
  • More than one type of rehearsal - elaborative necessary for STM --> LTM
  • Artificial material
  • More than one type of LTM
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Types of Long Term Memory


  • Episodic - memory for events in our lives
  • Semantic - memory for knowledge of the world; like an encylopaedia/dictionary. Inc. language
  • Procedural - memory for automatic and often skilled behaviours


  • Clinical evidence - Clive Wearing + HM: damaged episodic,not semantic/procedural
  • Neuroimaging evidence - episodic and procedural recalled from different parts of prefrontal cortex
  • Real-life application - training programs for adults with mild cognitive impairments
  • Problems with clinical evidence
  • Three types of LTM or two?
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Working Memory Model


  • Central Execuative - co-ordinates slave systems and allocated resources, very limited capacity
  • Phonological Loop - auditority information: phonological store and articulatory process (maintenance rehearsal)
  • Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad - visual information: visual cashe (store) and inner scribe (spatial arrangement)
  • Episodic Buffer - integrates processing of slave systems and records the order of events, linked to LTM 


  • Clinical evidence - KF had poor auditory but good visual
  • Dual-task performance - Baddeley et al: difficult to do two visual tasks at same time
  • Lack of clarity over CE - not yet fully explained, probably has different components
  • Word-length effect supports PL
  • Brain scanning studies
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Explanations for Forgetting: Interference

Interference Theory

  • Proactive - old memories disrupt new memories
  • Retroactive - new memories disrupt old memories
  • McGeoch + McDonald: similar words create more interference


  • Lab studies - well-controlled studies show interference effects
  • Artificial material - list of words are not like everyday memories, may overemphasise interference as an explanation
  • Real-life studies - Baddeley + HItch: rugby players study supports
  • Time between learning
  • Interference effects may be overcome using cues
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Explanations for Forgetting: Retrieval Failure

Retrieval Failure Theory

  • Encoding specificity principle - Tulving: cues most effective if present at coding and rertrieval
  • Context-dependent forgetting - Godden + Baddeley: recall better when external contexts matched
  • State-dependent forgetting - Carter + Cassaday: recall better when internal states matched


  • Eysenck: claims retrieval failure is most important reason for LTM forgetting
  • Questioning context effects - no fogetting unless contexts are very different (Godden + Baddeley)
  • Recall vs recognition - absence of cues affects recalls but not recognition
  • Problems with ESP
  • Real-life application
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Factors Affecting Eyewitness Testimony: Misleading

Misleading Information

  • Leading questions - Loftus + Palmer: est. speed affected by leading question (smashed vs contacted)
  • Response bias - no change to ones memory
  • Substitution explanation supported by Loftus + Palmer, and report of presence of glass
  • Post-event discussion - discussion contaminates eyewitnesses' memories; memory conformity (information and NSI involved)


  • Real-life application - could help prevent miscarriages of justice + change police interviewing
  • Artificial tasks - watching film clips ignores stress + anxiety associated with real-life accident/crime
  • Individual differences - older people may be less accurate due to own-age bias
  • Damand characteristics
  • Consequences of eyewitness testimony
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Factors Affecting Eyewitness Testimony: Anxiety

Effects of Anxiety

  • Negative effect on recall - Johnson + Scott: high-anxiety knife condition led to less good recall
  • Positive effect on recall - Yuille + Cutshall: high anxiety associated with better recall when witnessing real crime
  • Yerkes-Dodson Law - both low and high anxiety levels lead to poorer recall


  • Weapon focus effect not relevant - Pickel: may be surprise, therefore tells nothing of effects of anxiety
  • Field studies - lack control; cannot control what happens to witnesses between crime and interviewing
  • Ethical issues - creating anxiety can casue psychological harm
  • Damand characterists operate in lab studies of anxiety
  • Inverted-U explanation is too simplistic
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Improving the Accuracy of Eyewitness Testimony

Cognitive Interview

  • Report everything - include even unimportant details
  • Reinstate the context - picture the scene and recall how you felt; context-dependent forgetting
  • Reverse the order - recall from the end and work backwards; disrupts expectations
  • Change perspective - put yourself in the shoes of someone else present; disrupts schema
  • Enhanced cognitive interview - adds social dynamics (e.g. establishing eye contact)


  • Time-consuming - takes longer and needs special training
  • Some elements are more valuable - 'report everything' and 'reinstate the context' together produced best recall
  • Effectiveness of ECI - consistently produces more accurate recall than standard interview
  • Variations of CI are used - weakness
  • CI creates an increase in inaccurate information
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