Media influences on anti social behaviour
Anti social behaviour is defined as a thing that disrupts social relationships, such as aggression or lack of helpfulness.
Social learning theory is used to describe how media can lead to antisocial behaviours. SLT states that learning is an idirect reinforcement where observed behaviours are rewarded are imitated. There are four steps of modelling;
1. Attention- children use pay attention o what model on television is doing or saying
2. Retention- in order to reproduce the behaviour they have seen on television hey must be able to retain the memory of it.
3. Reproduction- individual must be capable of reproducing the models behaviour, includes aspec of self efficacy.
4. Motivation- an Individual expects to receive positive reinforcements for their behaviour
Key terms for AO1 antisocial behaviour
Observational learning-acquiring information through observation
Imitation- reproduction of an act performed by a role model
Role model- a person to be looked at by others as an example
Vicarious leaning- observed behaviours are rewarded and reinforced
Self efficacy- situation specific confidence to perform behaviour
Schemas- cognitive framework or concept that helps interpret information
Scripts- sequence of expected behaviours for a given situation
Normative beliefs- individuals beliefs on normal behaviour
Identification- the process whereby an individual associates with the qualities, characteristics and views of another person.
A02/3 for antisocial behaviour
P; research. E; bandura bobo L; supports S; lab H; flaws
P; research. E; huesmann et al(2003) L; supports S; follow up H; bias
P; conflicting evidence E; Gunter et al(2002) L;over generalise S; natural H; monitor
Deterministic- anti social behaviour is result of environment, no room for free will in explanation.
Media influence on pro social behaviour
Uses social learning theory but instead of how we observe and imitate anti social behaviour we instead see people rewarded by vicarious reinforcements for pro social behaviour.
Pro social behaviour is actions which aim to help others.
Altruism is unselfish concern for the welfare of others, also known as selflessness
AO2/3 on pro social behaviour
P; supporting research E; Sprafkin et al(1975) L;supports H; long lasting
P; research E; Rosenkoetter (1999) L;supports METH; self report
P; conflicting research E; fogel (2007) L; adult mediation H; practical application
A further problem with SLT; you need to pay attention which is more likely in antisocial behaviour where as prosiocial behaviour can be subtle
Persuasive affects of media
Attitude is a settled way of thinking or feeling about something. Persuasion is inducing someone to do something through reasoning or argument.
Hovland and Yale model; initially developed to see how propaganda could be used to support the American war effort. The model says that attitude change one occurs if the message is learned and therefore remembered.
Persuasion happens in a sequential process;
Attention- message must be noticed, media must catch attention of viewer.
Comprehension- to be persuaded the viewer must understand the contents of the message, simpler message is more likely to persuade.
Reactance- audience then react to message, may agree and change attitude or disagree and ignore message
Acceptance- once individual has paid attention, understood and agreed to the message then the final stage is to accept message.
Hovland and Yale model
Source; the source plays an important role in determining the persuasive nature of any communication. A credible source has maximum influence immediately following the communication. Messages are most likely to persuade if the source is regarded as highly credible as they appear to have relevant expertise and that they are trustworthy. Persuasiveness is increased if an expert appears to be presenting the truth in an unbiased way. Another important aspect of the source is attractiveness as receivers are more likely to be persuaded by someone who they find physically attractive.
Message- refers to what is being communicated. Fear can often be used to persuade people, it is used to grab attention if they show horrible consequences of particular actions. Repetition- can be used in advertising to increase familiarity and liking of something or someone. One vs two sided arguments- we may decide to present both sides of an argument, if audience is intelligent or likely to be hostile it's better to show both sides.
Recipients refers to who the message is intended for; younger people are more likely to be persuaded (loftus 2003) misleading information study. Children also appear more susceptible to peer of persuasion in advertising. (Martin 1997) found older children have good understanding whereas young children did not.
Intelligence of recipient- intelligent people are more likely to understand and retain message. Intelligence can make someone more critical of message content. Message must match the audience.
AO2/3 Hovland and Yale model
P; research E; meyerowitz and chaiken(1987) L;supports E; control :(no control
P; supporting research E; bochner and insko(1966) L; supports
P;contradicts E;McGuire(1969) L; fear H; cognitive misers
Elaboration likelihood model
ELM attempts to explain the processes that lead to persuasion, the term elaboration refers to the extent to which people think about arguments contained in the persuasive message. There are two different routes too persuasion, depending on whether the audience is likely to focus on the message or other factors **** as attractiveness or credibility of the source.
The central route; said to be more long lasting and if audience is likely to focus on arguments(personal interest) then this route is appropriate
The peripheral route- used if context of the message is focuse on rather than the message itself
Application of ELM
Central route- audience factors; high motivation and ability to think about the message. Processing factors; deep processing, focuses on the quality of the message arguments. Persuasion outcome; lasting change that resists fading and counter arguments.
Involves cognitive effort and active engagement. It is likely to result in permanent change in attitude or behaviour. Motivated audience members are more likely to find the argument interesting or personally involving.
Peripheral route- AF; low motivation or ability to think about the message. PA; superficial processing[focused on surface features such as attractiveness of communicator or the number or arguments presented]. PO; temporary change that is susceptible to fading and counter arguments.
Involves minimal cognitive effort, it is likely to result in temporary change of attitude or behaviour. Individual isn't usually very motivated by the particular message. The message content is not important instead the focus is on the attractiveness, likability. Persuaded by superficial factors
Need for cognition(NC)
The view that some people have a stronger need to know than others and like to get to grips with arguments. Someone with a high need for cognition is likely to agree with statements such as 'I like to solve problems and puzzles'. This is a stable factor.
High NC- have an inherent tendency to search for, scrutinise and reflect upon information in order to better understand the word around them.
Low NC- rely on the opinions of credible others
AO2/3 for ELM
P;research E; Vidrine, Simmons and Brandon(2007) L; accordance with model Evaluation; :) control :(not generalisable :( not followed up
Further evaluation;a problem with elm is that it suggests there are central and peripheral cue which may not be the case. Petty and Cacioppo(1980) found when using an attractive model in a shampoo advert it was seen as the central evidence of shampoos performance.
IDA; issue of cultural bias. The ELM was developed in western culture. Collectivist cultures approaches to media may be different.
Positive effects of computer and video games on be
Positive effect; video games can increase pro social behaviour in player.
P; research E; Gentile et al (2009) L; positive effects EVAL; :)sample :)variety of methods :(questionnaires :(cause and effect
Positive effect; video games can use up more energy than other screen based activities [obesity is growing problem, due to lack of physical activity]
P; evidence E;mellecker et al (2008) L;increase calorie :)scientific H;not replacement
Positive effect; computers can help nurture friendships[majority of adolescents in western countries have access to the internet, adolescents use computers to nurture existing friendships shown by valkenburg and peters(2009)]
P;research E; dolev-Cohen and barak(2013) L;nurture Impl;improve self esteem H;culturally bias
Negative effects of computer and video games on be
Negative effect;video games can encourage aggressive behaviour, modern games allow greater interaction. Children may grow up not being able to distinguish reality from fantasy.
P; research E;Anderson et al (2007) L;supports :)methodological strength(lab) H; ecological validity
Further evidence Peng et al(2008) found that people who gave higher aggressive resonating scores engaged in more frequent violent games. Implications; aggressive predisposition. However; cause and effect cannot be established.
Additional evaluation; ethical implications with research into making people play aggressive games if it does cause aggression. Implications; positive as it shows that parents need to be informed on research so they can act on it.
Negative effect; video games and computers can lead to poorer relationships with family and friends because playing video games or being on the Internet can remove people from social situations.
P;research E;Padilla-walker et al(2009)/ Kraut et al(1998) L; more confidence EVAL; self report measures/no control IMPLICATIONS;try and reduce amount of time on computer.
Attraction of celebrity
Parasocial relationships- a one sided relationship with someone you haven't met, such as a celebrity which creates the illusion of friendship. Mccetcheon et al developed the celebrity attitude scale and proposed that there are three levels of parasocial relationships. From fairly harmless to serious. Level one(the entertainment/social level) fans are attracted to a particular celebrity because of the perceived ability to entertain. They become a source of social interaction and gossip. Level two(intense personal) reflects intensive compulsive feelings about the celebrity. Obsessive tendencies including feeling celeb is perfect in every way etc. Level three(borderline-pathological) typified by uncontrollable behaviours and fantasies about celebrity, including I would die for them, they would be happy to see me.
Absorption addiction model- developed by mccutcheon(2002) this theory suggests that individuals who are struggling with their own identity and self esteem, they absorb theirselvess into a celebrity as a way of escaping or forming their own identity. This model argues that people pursue parasocial relationships due to deficits in their real life. Stage 1-persons attention is entirely focused on celebrity and they find out everything about them. Stage 2- individual craves greater closeness to celebrity and behaviour becomes increasingly delusional, the motivation is to gain a social role and full sense of identity. A personal crisis may lead an individual to move from one stage to the next. Parasocial relationships are seen as addictive so the person get an increasingly stronger sense of involvement. Stalking is stage three and is reached by few people who have the poorest mental health.
AO2/3 for absorbtion and addiction model
:) P; reasearch E;Maltby et al(2001) L;supports model
:) P;further evidence E; Cheung and Yue (2003) L; link
:(P; methodology E; questionnaires L;internal validity
:(P;other explanations E;positive/activist L; not always negative
Contrast and compare other explanations(evolutionary)
Evolutionary explanations of the attraction of cel
Gossip theory; proposes that gossiping about high status individuals could help other individuals to be more like them and improve their attractiveness and chances of finding a mate.
Celebrities are a good source of gossip and there has been found to be universal behaviour in the human species. Our ancestors lived in society where groups were smaller, social status was very important. Gossip served to infor the group about what was happening and allowed one person to gain advantage over another. Those who were good at gossiping and knew what was owing on, who to trust and who to be weary of were more likely to survive.
Applied to attraction of celebrity; although our society has changed, our inmate tendency is still to gossip. Celebrities have a high social status and are a good target for gossip. Gossip is fuelled by the media who give us a wealth of information on celebrities the clothing relationships and personal issues.
Use evidence from Barkow(1992) and De Backer (2005) for AO1
AO2/3 for evolutionary explanations
P;research evidence E;Wilson et al(2000) L;supports
Gossip theory AO2
P; supporting research E; Fox(2001)L;supports H; only some pps gossiped
Lacks face validity
Ignores individual differences
Celebrity worship-most research on celebrity worship has use the CAS where lower scores indicate individualistic behaviour(watching or reading about celebrities) and higher scores indicate over identification and obsession with celebrities.
Entertainment social; learning life story of celeb
Intense personal; my favourite celebrity is perfect in every way, is my soul mate
Boderline-pathological;I would gladly die to save the life of my favourite celebrity, they would be happy to see me if I walked through their door.
These different aspects of celebrity worship vary in terms of the area social interaction between fans and celebrities particularly between the intense personal and borderline pathological dimensions. Intense personal aspects are associated with passive parasocial relationships(suggests there's a link between sense of identity and tendency to have strong attraction) with borderline pathological aspects, the parasocial relationships involve individuals imagining themselves in a special relationship with a celebrity. The difference between the two are significant. Intense personal is a passive one in that the fan does not really expect to interact with the celebrity, where as borderline pathological category actually believe themselves to be in a relationship and focus how it will develop in the future.
AO2/3 for celebrity worship
P;research shows link between poor body image and celebrity worship. E;Maltby (2005) L; psychological influence H; :)questions controlled :(self report technique
P;poor psychological wellbeing E; Maltby(2001) L: indicates relationship E;GHQ does not cover mental health issues
Celebrity walking is a patter of behaviour involving repeated attempts to contact/ harass causing fear and alarm it is defined as intrusive and obsessive behaviour directed towards the individual, which is unwanted or creates fear.
Mccutcheon CAS scale
Level three; and even smaller number engage in behaviours that may be seen as obsessional and pathological such as following a celebrity how and writing to them. At this stage the celebrity worship an be seen as having got out of hand and become more serious talking.
Sheridan e tal(2005) has suggested that these element of parasocial interactions may be extended to include dimensions that cover active attempts to contact the celebrity by letter and overwhelming belief by the person that there is a real relationship between the celebrity and themselves. Once the fan begins to stalk actual contact is made.
AO2/3 celebrity stalking
P; research E; mccutcheon et al(2006) L;links between attachment predicted by that helmet theory Eval;:(doesn't mean they went on stalk :( population validly :)may increase research into this area.
P;indicates clear link between stalking and mental illness E; fixated threat assessment centre L;focus specifically on stalking EVAL;generalisations can be made
How to gain AO2 marks
AO2 credit is awarded for critical discussion of research into celebrity stalking. Methodological evaluation is likely to form a major part in this.