The Haber Process
- Produces ammonia from nitrogen and hydrogen
- Reaction uses a high temperature, high pressure and a catalyst to produce a reasonable yield of ammonia in a short time.
Used to manufacture ammonia (used to make fertilisers and other chemicals).
Nitrogen from air, Hydrogen (usually) from natural gas.
>>These sre purified and mixed in the correct proportions.
Then passed over an iron catalyst at a temperature of about 450ºC and a pressure of about 200 atmospheres.
Gases are cooled so ammonia condenses
Liquid ammonia = removed from unreacted gases and are recycled.
Yield = less than 20%, but ammonia is produced quickly and no gases are wasted.
Conditions in Haber process - vary in different places but always chosen to produce the best yield as qickly as possible.
Hydrogen + Nitrogen = Ammonia
Balanced equation: 3 H2 + N2 → 2 NH3
Reversible, ammonia breaks down into nitrogen and hydrogen .·. reaction does not go to completion.