Age range: 0-2 years.
- sit unaided - no support given
- start to speak - development of the language skills
- solo play - playing alone or alongside someone
- gross motor skills - skipping, paddling, walk, crawl
- grow taller
- able to crawl walk run
- ****ing relfex - the infant will **** on a finger placed in their mouth
- rooting reflex - if the infants face is stroked gently they will turn their head searching for the breast to be fed.
- grasping reflex - the infant will curl their fingers around anything placed in their hand.
- stepping reflex - if the infant is held standing on a firm surface, they will make stepping movements.
- startle (moro) reflex - a loud noise or being moved quickly will cause the infant to open their hands and throw their arms back.
- infants are egocentric (self-important), this means that they can only see the world from their point of view.
- they can not talk or understand language, so they can only learn through sight, sound, taste, smell and touch. this is why they put everything in their mouth.
- at 3-months they make noises when spoken to.
- a 6-month old infant will not look for a toy if they drop it out of their cot.
- at 9-months they learn even if they can not see something it is still there.
- they begin to put thoughts in to words.
- when they learn to talk they always ask why questions.
- they learn to smile and make eye contact with people.
- in their first year they will develop a strong emotional bond with the parent or main carer.
- they have to bond with someone and experience attachment before they can feel jealousy.
- they have to be able to tell the difference between strangers and people they know before they can feel shy.
- if bonding does not occur the infant can become disruptive and may feel unloved and unwanted.
- new born babies have no sense of personal identity
- they know nothing about the world or anyone in it
- they get to recognise there carers face, smell, touch and voice.
- they still do not understand that other people have thoughts and feelings
- up to the age of two they will play solo
- by two years they will play near other infants
age range: 3-8 years
- fine motor skills - painting, drawing, colouring
- co-operative play - when they play with someone not alongside.
- intellectual development - develops new skills
- reading and writing - (fine motor skills)
- moral development - learning what is right and wrong
- grow taller
- able to run, skip, hop and jump
- improved co-ordination - better aim
- they learn to talk and develop a much wider vocabulary
- at the end of this life stage they will begin to understand concepts.
- concepts such as colours, number, size, symbols.
- the child have simple understanding of right and wrong
- at the age of 5 or so they understand how to organise their thoughts
- they experience a wider range of emotions compaired to be an infant
- they learn they should express their emotions differently in different situations.
- they still depend on their carers and close family members.
- by the age of four they need other children to play with
- by five they are attending school, and meeting new people
- by five they co-operate with others in their peer group in games
- at five they can understand more about others
age range - 9-18 years
- puberty - development of hair and changes
- emotional changes - hormones: oestrogen/testosterone
- develop sense of own values
- more independent
Physical characteristics -
- gorw taller
- periods start - menstryation
- pubic hair grow
- hips broaden
- breasts develop
- gain weight
- grow taller
- voice breaks
- pubic hair grows
- shoulders broaden
- testes produce sperm
- penis grows
- gain weight
- they have a growth spurt in their mind too
- they learn to think in different ways
- they learn to synthesize information
- they blend information together
- they learn new abilities to think and argue
- make their own descisions
- think independently
- hormones change which effects emotions in puberty
- experience mood swings
- looking for a sense of personal identity
- they can become insecure about there looks and weight etc..
- peer groups become increasingly important
- parents decrease in value
- become more independent and dont rely on family as much
- they develop who they are in peer groups.