Description: The process of abbreviating, it uses the first letter of a group of words. However unlike initalism, the acronmy is pronouced as a single word.
Examples: YOLO, ASAP, LOL
Description: A phrase with an adverb as its head.
Example: It was a very big bag, that the woman was carring.
Description: A phrase with an adverb at its head.
Examples: Very quickly the man ran across the street.
Description: A sequence of words beginning with the same sound.
Examples: Sea, Sand and Sun; Thor thundered through.
Description: Referenceing back to an already stated lexical item.
Examples: I went out with my father, he is a lot of fun.
My dog ran around the house, after that we locked him out.
Description: Words with opposite semantic value. (opposites)
Example: It is a love, hate relationship.
They love to hate each other.
Everything is black and white.
Description: The repetion of vowel sounds. Or Rhyme with vowel sounds.
Example: Teenie weenie pumpikin pie
Description: A verb that supports or 'helps' another; it shows tense or modality. This is to improve the communication and ease of understanding about what is going on.
Examples: am, are, is. -> instead of I happy, the auxiliary verb changes it to I am happy, which helps communication of what is being said.
Description: Referencing forwards to an as yet disclosed lexical item.
Example: He kept me laughing the entire time, thats why I'll visit James again.
Description: A word, such as conjunction, that connects words, phrases, clauses, sentences or paragraph.
Examples: And, But, Because, However.
The boy walked across the road because he wanted to go into the shops.
Description: An associated, symbolic meaning relying on culturally shared conventions.
Examples: Blue - Sea, Calm, Relaxation
Roses - Love, Passion, Romance
Description: The repetition of consonants sound for effect.
Examples: "He thrusts his fists against the posts and still insists he sees the ghosts."
Description: words such as as and, but, and or that link clauses to form compound sentances. (Connectives)
Examples: The boy could jump or he could climb down the rocks.
Description: Lexical items that 'point' towards something and references to things, to be understood some form of context needs to be specified.
Example: Tom was waiting for his interview, and he was nervous for it.
Description: A dictonary definition of something.
Example: The denotation of character is: 1. The combination of qualities or features that distinguishes one person, group, or thing from another. 2. A distinguishing feature or attribute, as of an individual, group, or category. 3. Genetics A structure, function, or attribute determined by a gene or group of genes.4. Moral or ethical strength. 5. A description of a person's attributes, traits, or abilities.6. A formal written statement as to competency and dependability, given by an employer to a former employee; a recommendation. 7. Public estimation of someone; reputation: personal attacks that damaged her character. 8. Status or role; capacity: in his character as the father.
Description: Constructions which express degrees of necessity or obligation.
NB// DEO - means god in latin, meaning you have to do something.
Example: All children must do their homework.
Description: The missing out of sounds or parts of words in speech or writing.
Example: gonna -> going to
Description: The missing out of a word or words in sentances.
This is helpful in adding effect into writing, and it is also helpful in shortening quotes from another source.
Example of requoting: 'Then I expect she's feeling confused...everyone else might say about her if she starts going out with Harry.'
Example of emphesis on words present: 'Full moon' or 'Coffee'
Description: Constructions that express degrees possiblity in the request.
Examples: Highly suggest, maybe, perhaps
Description: A socially acceptible way word or phrase used to avoid talking about something potentially distainful.
Example: gone to a better place - died.
Description: Antonyms that are not exact opposites but can be considered in terms of degree of quality.
Example: Good, Better, Best
Description: A word that sounds the same as another word or words.
Example: There, Their and They're
Pear, and pair
Description: The use of single letters and numbers to represent words based on similarity of sound.
Example: 2 -> to, two; K -> Okay
Description: The term for the hierarchical structures that exsist between lexical terms,
Description: An abbreviation that uses the first letter of a group of words and is pronounced as individual letters.
Example: OLC, USB, USA
Description: A verb process that has no objective.
Example: yawned, slept
Description: The way in which speakers mirror each others' lexical choices as a sign of community membership.
Lexical itmems that are similar in a rnage of meanings and/or properties. Words which are linked together by a broader subject.
Example: Science; Periodic table, states, gas, solid, liquid, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Symbols, atomic number.
Description: Lexical items that rely on a similarity between sound and meaning.
Example: Buzz and pop.
Description: Words basically -> 'the method that deals with the vocabulary system of a language.'
Modal auxiliary verb
Description: A verb that never appears on its own and is used to express possibility, certainty, necessity or obligation.
Example: Will, would,can, could, shall, should, may, might, must
Description: The smallest unit of grammatical meaning. Morpheme can be words in their own right or combine with other morphemes to form words.
Example: C, A, K,
Description: The area of language study that deals with the formation of words from smaller units, called Morphomes
Non lexical onomatopeia
Description: 'non words' that work in the same way as lexical onomatopeoia.
Example: Tut, shh.
Description: A figure of speech where an animal or an inanimate object is described as having human characteristics.
Example: The tree branches waved in the wind.
Description: A pronoun that that demonstrates ownership.
Example: It's my phone
Description: Used to denote tense changes
Example: do, be have
Description: A 'best fit' example for a particular catergory.
Example: An apple - for fruit
A pen - for stationary
Cat - for a pet
Description: When lexical items replace those already mentioned or about to be mentioned.
Example: It was moving at a fast speed, when the glue stick hit the boy in the head.
Description: describing states of being, identification or attributes.
Description: The projection of a certain way of thinking about a particular individuals, group or institution through the use of language.
Example: Oxford is seen as prestigious by the way it is described, while Brunel is seen as common by the more modern language used.
Description: A secondary (and sometimes more subtle) reason for doing something.
Example: A leaflet is to inform, but its secondary purpose is to pursuade you to go to the restaurant/ buy the prodcut etc.
Description: The sense of negative meaning or connotation that some lexical items have attatched to them
Example: Toilet, peak
Description: The method that deals with meanings and how they are generated within texts.
The way in which the words in a text is interpreted. Mainly due to the person.
Example: Nutella contains hazelnuts, - What they are saying is that it is contains hazelnuts, parents and consumers consider it HEALTHY because it contains hazelnuts.
It also contains other ingredients, which aren't healthy.
Description: A pronoun that usually occurs as the actor in a verbal process.
Example: She went walking,
He put all the books away.
Sub - Mode
Description: A subdivision of mode,
Examples: Poetry, Drama, Conversation
Description: A 'lower' or 'less important' word in the hyponymic chain; a more specific lexical item.
Description: A clause that is dependant on another to be complete the full meaning of the sentance.
Example: All the bread was finished.
Description: Words such as because, although and while that link a main clause to a number of subordinate clauses in complex sentances.
Example: All the bread was finished , therefore they had to eat something different for breakfast.
Description: Replacing one set of lexical terms for another. Usually used to avoid repetition and to be clearer.
Example: They should use substitution in dictionaries,
Bigot - A person who is bigoted.
Substitute to => A person who is narrrowly or intolerantly devoted to his or her opinions and prejudices.
Description: Adjectives inflected with -est or combined with 'most' are in the superlative form.
Examples: Best, Most organised
Description: With words similar in semantic value
Examples: Pluck -> Bold, Brave, Grit, Determination
Description: The way advertising and other forms of communication use persinalised language such as second person.
Example: 'Hope you have a nice day.' 'See you after the break' and 'Welcome to Starbucks...'
Description: A group of words that turn a declarative into an interrogative statements.
Example: 'It's cold, isnt it?' 'That was cleaver, wasn't it?'
Description: The language (in both Lexis and Grammar ) used by those sending messages on a mobile phone.
Description: Deliberately non-standard spelling for effect