- Completely new words which have entered the lexicon
- Are not derived in any way from other words.
- There aren't many of them!
- E.g. googol, phising, Tumblr.
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- Words borrowed from other languages and cultures.
- Can occur due to invasion or a new product from another country, for example.
- Large amounts from French, Latin and Greek.
- E.g. prince (French), lager (German), alcohol (Arabic), paella (Spanish), vodka (Russian)
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- Words or expressions that have come from America.
- (Does not include American spellings.)
- Examples. off of, gotten,
- Have to be in common usage in England to count.
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Affixing - Prefixes
- Adding a prefix to an existing word to create a new one.
- Examples: multimedia, multinational, international, internet, pre-, pro-
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Affixing - Suffixes
- The same process, just on the ends of words.
- Examples: -ment, -tive, -tion, -ly, -ing
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- New words created by combing two whole words.
- Can be written as one word, hyphenated or spaced.
- Examples: blackbird, laptop, blue-eyed, head boy, facebook, headline, happy hour, head waiter
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- Similar to compounds, but created by combing parts of words to create a new one.
- Examples: smog (smoke-fog), motel (motor-hotel), guyliner (guy-eyeliner), Brangelina (Brad-Angelina)
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- Words used more frequently in their abbreviated form than in their full form.
- Examples: flu (influenza), cig (cigarrette), the net (the internet)
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- Where an acronym is used regularly in the lexicon as a word which is understood as a whole, not by the sum of its parts.
- Can include text speak
- Examples: RADAR, LOL, etc
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