A: What is the main assumption of the Learning Approach?
Answer: That all behaivour is learnt and shaped by our environment.
B:What type of behaivour focus on?
Answer: observable/overt /measurable/ non abstarct features.
C: What does Learning Approach say about uncocious forces and the investigating of mental processes?
Answer: they say that they are unscientific and therefore unmeasurable.
D: This approach argues that in order for Psychology to be scientific is dhould focus on what? Rather than?
Answer: It should focus on behaviour that can be objectivley measured rather than things like cognitive processes which can onlt be inferred.
A: "Born as a blank slate"
- To begin with the human mind is and empy vessel with nothing but a few natural insticts at birth i.e. TUBULA RASA
- All behaviours are learnt from the environment.
- This Approach REJECTS that behaviour is determined by biological causation
B: "Mind is a black box"
- The mind is a blamk box which we cannot access
- Sees no point in studying something you cannot see as they are abstract concepts and very hard to measure.
- Each of the theories Classical Conditioning, Operant and SLT use the stimulus and response relationship when explaining behaivour.
C: "Only study observable behaivour"
- As scientific Psychology the Learning Approach believes we should only study observable behaviour
- Therefore it only studies overt behaivoursand the stimuli that casue them.
- It can be objectivley measured unlike the ciognitive processes which can only be inferred.
A: " Animals and humans learn in similar ways"
- The approach uses laboratory experiments on humans and animals to investigate behaivour.
- Laboratory experiments are used as they have high control meaning clear cause and effect which is needed for conclusions with validity of explaining berhaivour.
- The laws of behaviour in animals and humans are equally the same however animals allow for repetiotion ( shorter gestation and reproductive cycle)
Classical Conditioning introduction.
What is Classical Conditioning?
Classical conditioning looks at how refl;exes come to be triggered by associations with new stimuli.
Who developed Classical Conditionong?
Pavlov in the early 20th century
A: Describe UCS or Unconditioned Stimulus:
The STIMULUS which automatically triggers a specific reflex e.g. food > salivation.
B: Describe UCR of unconditioned response:
The automatic RESPONSE to the unconditioned STIMULUS (UCS) e.g. food > salivation.
C: Describe NS or nuetral stimulus:
A STIMULUS which wouldnt normally trigger a specific REFLEX response e.g. Bell doesn't normally trigger salivation.
D: Describe cs or conditioned stimulus:
The NS or nuetral stimulus now triggers the reflex response e.g. bell > salivation.
E: NS nuetral stimulus + CS conditioned stimulus + ?
CONDITIONED RESPONSE. CR this is the learned response i.e. reflex behaviour is now triggers by CS e.g. salivation in response to the bell.
Classical Conditioning extended
A: Describe what the term EXTINCTION means and give and example ...
EXTINCTION - If a conditioned stimulus is present om severaltrails without the UCS also being present tyhe association between the two weakens and eventually the CR will be unpresent to the CS this is called extinction as the learnt response has been extingused.
e.g. if a dog hears a buzzer on several trials when no food is present it will stop salivating to the bell.
B: Describe what the term SPONTANEOUS RECOVERY means and give an example...
SPONTANEOUS RECOVERY - in Pavlov's experiment if a dog was removed from the experiment for several hours and later exposed to the CS it would show the CR. This is called SPONTANEOUS RECOVERY and it shows that the association between the NS and the UCS han't completely been extinguished.
C: Describe what GENERALISATION means and give an example...
GENERALISATION- Pavlov found that the dogs in his experiment salivated to similar tones of the bell or CS and they showed the CR to this. This shows that the dog has generalised the CS.
Pavloc also found that the more similar the bell the larger the amount of salva produced by the dogs.
D: Describe what DISCRIMINATION means and give an example ...
DISCRIMINATION - when an e.g. Buzzer is sounded that is completely different from the original bell CS the dogs do not display the CR. Thius shows that the dog is discriminating against stimuli that are too dissimilar to the origibal CS.
Classical Conditioning Termanology
A: Describe ONE-TRAIL LEARNING ...
ONE-TRAIL LEARNING - When the CS and the UCS are paired together only once...
e.g. if you see a BAD traffic accident (the UCS) this may trigger a fear response (the UCR) subsequently you may experience the fear response every time you pass ana accident again as it has become related to the UCS through GENERALISATION it becomes the CS and the fear response the CR
what is the first stage of froming a phobia?
- Firstl a panic attak occurs in response to a stressful situation e.g. Being trapped in a lift
What happens after the panic attack occurs?
- association is esablished between anxiety anf that lift.
After anxiety become associated with that one lift what could happen?
- Subsequently this anxeity is GENERALISED to all lifts consequently this person will activley avoid using lifts in the future and using other methopds such as stars will be reinforcement as anxiety is reduced when usin alternate methods.
Evaluation of Classical Conditioning
- Classical Conditioning shows how the environment can determine behaviour through stimuli response mechanism e.g. Little ablbert initially showed no fear of rats but through his experience developede a phobia that was widely GENERALISED.
Application to real life
- The principals of classical conditioning are used successfully in behaivoural therapies such as aversion and systematic desensitisation. such tharapies can be used to cure phobias and addictions.
How it's investigated
- The behaivourist theories are easily testible due to the use of experimental methods because this is seen as scientific as it allows strict control over variables.
- e.g. and IV independant variable can be manipulated to see the effect on the DV dependant variable.
- Classical conditioning is largely based on studies of nin-human animals in a laboratory environment, this can lead to issues such as : problems with generalising results of studies low ecological validity and mundane realism and high demand characteristics for humans.
- It would be hard to generalise results from animal studies because they may be more driven by innate factors and therefore may be to diffrent for comparrison!
Evaluation of Classical Conditioning 2
- Classical Conditioning can only account for the apperance of involuntary reflex response in new situations, it cannot explain the aqusition of entirely new volunatry behaivours.
- Operant Conditioning however does aim to explain why some voluntary behaivours e.g. pressing a lever are repeated or maintained through positive or negative reinforcement.
Watson and Raynor 1920
Innocuos stimulus - A stimuli that wouldn't be exspected to create a fear response.
AIM OF THE STUDY - To demonstarte thet Classical Conditioning could be used to create a fear response in a child, towards an inncous stimulus.
- to show that human behaivour could be accounted for by the process of Classical Conditioning.
Technique: Laboratory Experiment
Sample: 1 Participant "Little Albert" ( 9 months old at the start of the study ) thought to be mentally stable.
THE THREE STAGES
Little Albert was exposed to many NS nuetral stimuli to test if he gave a fearful response to any of them or not. He was shown various objects such as: White rat, White rabbit, cotton wool, a dog, a monkey, masks ( with and without hair) and burning newspaper.
his recations to the different objects were recorded and Watson ans Raynor found that Little Albert showed special interest in the WHITE RAT (NS) as it caused no natural reflex response.
Watson and Raynor 1920 (2)
two months after the PRECONDITIONING STAGE this stage started.
Little Albert was presented with the White rat (NS)
When Little Albert touched the rat the Researchers struck a 4 foot metal bar behind Albert's head scaring him and acting as UCS of his UCR of fear.
this stage was repeated five times then a week later and twice more 17 days later.
POST CONDITIONING TESTS
In this stage Alberts reactions to ceratin things was tested to test his cinditioning, he was exposed to these things: Rat + Loud noise, The Rat alone and Other fluffy white objects e.g. Cotton wool to test Genralistation.
When he was exposed to the noise and the rat he displayed some distress ( jumping violently )
Albert was suspicious of the rat.
Albert was activley avoiding the rat leaning away from it as soon as it was presented.
Watson and Raynor 1920 results etc.
RESULTS OF THE EXPERIMENT
When the Rabbit was presented to Albert he cried showing that his phobia had been GENERALISED TO WHITE FURRY THINGS.
Seven weeks later after the rabbit Alvert also cried in response to a vareity of white furry things e.g. fur coat, father christmas beard.
When Albert reached 1 year old he was taken from the hospital meaning that Watson and Ryanor were unable to de-breif him of his phobia breaking the protection to participants ethical guideline and left him with the conditioned phobia.
Watson and Raynor (1920) concluded that it is possible to produce a fear response ( phobia) in a human using the process of Classical Conditioning.
Watson and Raynor 1920 Evaluation
As this is a study with one participant of 9 months at start and 12 monts at end of study the results cannot be generalised because the sample is too small and narrow.
ALBERT had been reared in a hospital environment from birth he was unusual as he had never been seen to show fear or rage by staff, Therefore Little Albert may of responded differently in this experiment to how other young children may of as these findings are unique to him and therefore cannot be generalised.
The study has high reliability as it uses a standardised procedure that allows for high control and replication of the study.
e.g. experiment is split into specific stages: preconditioning, conditioning trails, post-conditioning tests.
APPLICATIONS TO EVERYDAY LIFE:
This research has demonstrated that phobia can be learnt through the process of classical conditioning therefore if we can understand the development of phobias we can incorporate this into treatment of this form of behaivour through the use of...
SYSTEMATIC DESENSITISATION AS A THERAPY
This study lacks ecological validity aas the study takes place in an unatural setting so the findings cannot be generalised to the real world.
This study also lacks mundande realism as the situation Albert was in wasnt typical of everyday life.
However the artificiality did increase the experimental validity of the study due to strict controlls over extraneous environmental and participant e.g. Albert had no prior learning due to his age that could have influenced the results.
Watson and Rayner 1920 Evaluation prt 2
- There are ethical concerns with this study as albert was conditioned to fearnumerous white furry stimuli
- His mother removed him before the psychlogists could de breif him however they were aware of the date Albert was to leave and purposely left out de breifing stage thefore protection to participants was broken,
- Could be argued that the costs to Albert are outweighed by the benefits such as development of therapy techniques.
- A recent 2012 research paper suggests Little Albert had hydrochephalus from birth (water on the brain)
- The study claimed that Little Alberts Behaivour indicated that his responses were indicative of a nuerologically compromised child
- If this is true it would undermine Watson and Rayners claim that Albert B was a "normal" and "healthy" child and possibly call into question the credability of a highly influential study.
Systematic Desensitisation Therapy
SYSTEMATIC DESENSITISATION THERAPY:
- This therapy is based on the principals of Classical Conditioning
- This therapy was developed by a psychologist named Wolpe
- The number of sessoins of this therapy depend on the severity or strength of the phobia/ clients ability to relax.
4 STAGES OF SYSTEMATIC DESENSITISATION:
FUNCTOINAL ANALYSIS - Careful questioning to discover the nature of the anxiety and any possible triggers.
CONSTRUCTION OF ANXIETY HEIRARCHY - The client and therapist derive a heirarchy of anxiety provoking situations from least to most fearful.
RELAXATION TRAINING - ( This is the desensitisation ) p's are taught to relax their muscles , imagine happy scenarios, meditate or anything that will help them to relax.
GRADUAL EXPOSURE - ( This is the systematic component ) The above stages are comboned and the therapy begins working through each stage using relaxation techniques to relate a relaxed response to the stimuli.
IN VIVO- Direct exposure with the stimuli that evoke the fear response
IN VIRTRO - Non-direct exposure with the stimuli that evoke the fear response
As the anxiety response to each object/ scenario or situation is extinguised the next one on the pre-constructed heirarchy is presented until ultimate fear provoking situation is reahed and extingused then tharpy is complete.
Evaluation of SD Therapy
The theraputic outcomes are easy to measure because the goals of the therapy are clearly set in the critical anlysis stage if therapy. The fact that goals are specified means data on the effectivness of the tratment is easily compiles producing what is seen as a good scientific justification for the therapy.
It is widely use throughout the NHS because it is easiy and cheap to do.
Craske and Barlow 1993 found that 60-80% agrophobics show some but slight improvement after this tharpay however after 6 months some cleints completely relapse. this is because agrophobics aren't affraid of public space but affraid of having a panic attack in it therefore sd therapy isnt effective on more compls disorders.
In vitro methods are genrally less effective than in vivo methods however they are used more frequently due to ethical issues such as distress of participants therefore this therapy isnt effective on people who become distressed.
These therapies have ben criticised because traumatic experiences arent the only reason a phobia can be learnt. Psychoanylitical psychologists would suggest that a pobia is a manefistation of an underlying conflictwhich therapy should aim to discover HOWEVER from a SLT point of veiw it could be argued that phobias can be aqquredsimply throughthe observationof a rollmodel rather than a direct personal experience.
The therapy has limited success and cant work for all disorders such as psycoses as the p needs to give a calm and relaxed response and be involved in the process THEREFORE SD is mostly successful with less severe disorders rather than those such as scizophrenia
All therapies based on learning approach face the same criticism that they fail to identify and treat the underlying causes of abnormaility e.g. you may loose your fear of spiders but subsequently aquire a phobia of bees. you could consider the contrast of these therapies with psychodynamic ones. While these techniques may change behaivour another kind of problem behaivour could develop as the causes havent been adressed.
Operant Conditioning Early research
In Operant Conditioning learning occurs due to the consequences of an action. If the behaivour is to be continued it needs to be rewarded with posotive reinforcers.
overview - created various puzzzle boxes in which animals were placed with food on the outside of the box. The animal woud have to do a task I.E. pull a string in order to escape and get te reward of food. After the animals accidentally did the task they were placed in again until they eventually associated their action with the escape and then the reawrd which encoraged the behaiivour.
B.F Skinner :
overview: used 'Skinner Boxes' rats had to press a lever to release food into a food tray like Thorndike's animals Skinner's rats soon learned to press the lever.
Skinner used the term REINFORCER for anything that wuld make and animal/human repaet a response to a stimuli.
Operant Conditioning Terminology
A reinforcer Is ...
can either be a posotive or negative reinforcer.
POSOTIVE REINFORCER - Is anything pleasant that is given to you when a desired behaivour is preformed. this increases the probability of the behaivour being repeated. e.g. you do your homework to a good standard and receive praise from your teacher.
NEGATIVE REINFORCER - Is when something unpleasant is removed/ avoided after the desired behaivour this increases the probability of the behaivour being repeated e.g. to prevent getting sunburn you put on sun cream as you have experienced and learnt that it is painful so you avoid it by performing this behaivour.
UNCONTROLLABLE REINFORCERS - Some reinforcers are uncontrollable!!!! they happen regardless of our behaivour but we associate our actions with that reinforcer and continue to repeat the behaivour.
- One final method of changing behaivour is using punishment
- involves some king of physical and mental distress by giving an unpleasant stimulus ( smack) or taking away a pleasant one ( mobile phone)
- If we are aware that we may be punished for displaying a certain behaivour we are less likely to do it.
SKINNER believed that PUNISHEMENT is largely IRRELEVANT ...
- Since we should be able to predict and control a persons behaivour through the appropraite distribution of reinforcements so that punishment should never be nessacery.
- Punishement doesnt tyell us what we did was wring ad why it waswrong it doesent teach us what we ought to do Therefore using reinforcement to increase desirable behaivour is more effective.
It is doubtful that punishement acts as a deterrent very strict conditions must be met for it to work.
- must be predictable and consistent
- given by smeone nuetral not emotionally involved
- it must reflect/ be supported by social norms
OP Conditioning Schedules of Reinforcement
SKINNER experimennted with reinforcers by using different schedules instead of rewarding or enforcing theor behaivours every time they occured.
CONTINUOS REINFORCEMENT - When the desired behaivour is reinforced every time it occurs e.g. praise when HW done to good standard
VARIABLE RATIO - Where the number of correct responses in order for reward is constantly altered.
FIXED RATIO - Such as when every tenth, twelfth or thirtennth behaviour is reinfrced e.g. people who are payed monthly get paid in a fixed ratio.
FIXED INTERVAL - reinforced behaivour made once every number of time, as long as a positive behaivour was diplayed during this time.
VARIABLE INTERVAL - Where the time between reinforcements is varied. e.g. Gambling
BEHAVIOUR SHAPING BY SUCCESSIVE APPROXIMATIONS:
Skinner believed that advance behaivours such as language can be learnt through Opernat Conditioning through the process of behaviour shaping...
FIRSTLY - any behaviour which vaguely represents the desired behaivour is reinforced e.g. baby making noises praised
Reinforcements then become increasingly selective meaning that they are only given for behaivour which more closely resemble that of the desired e.g. become bored of sounds but then says forst word and praise is given!!!!!
Evaluation of Operant Conditioning
+ Operant Conditioning can explain a wider range of learning than Classical Conditioning. Classical Conditioning only looks at the learnig of reflex behaivours in new situations wheras Operant Conditioning considers voluntary behaivours Clearly human behavivour is much more than a set of reflex behaivours therefore it explains in more detail how behaivours are formed than some other theories.
+ The theory has a range of pratical applications in the real world . The principals of operant conditioning are used in behaviour modifocation techniques such as behaivour shaping by successive approximations. This has been used successfully to teach specific social skills to children with autism therefore it has a wide range od real life apllications.
+ The behaivourist theories are easily testable due to the use of experimental research methds. This is seen as scientific as it allows strict cintrol over variables. For example an independant variable IV can be manipulated to see effect on DV or dependant variable.
- It is difficult to show that a particular adult behaivour was aquired the Operant Conditioning this is because we havent been able to study the person from birth and therefore it is impossible to identify the specific causes or consequenses which may have led to that behaivour.
- Operant Conditioning is largeley based on studies of non- human animals, this can lead to problems in generalising froanimals to humans. as animals may be more driven by innate objects so therefore may be to different for comparrison. Therefore results from many studys cannot be generalised.
- Operant Conditioning fails to offer an adequate explanation of individual differences . For example, different individuals may respond differently to different stimulus therefore other factors must be invloved in learning such as cognition and innate factors.
Social Learning Theory SLT
PROPOSED BY ALBERT BANDURA ( STATES THAT WE LEARN FROM THE ENVIRONMENT RATHER THAN AN INNER DRIVE slt is learnt through REINFORCEMENT AND THE PROCESS OF MODELLING)
ALBERT BANDURA (1977) - recognised the importance of the cognitive process and combined with OC to come up with the idea learnig occurs mainly through observation and immitation.
PENNINGTON (1986) - Identified THREE VARABLES that affected IMMITATION
- Role model charecteristics: Age, Gender, Social status
- observer Charecteristics: self esteem, self efficacy
- Consequences of behaivour ( positivle/negativley reinforced or punoshed?)
THIS HAPPENS IN FOUR MAIN STAGES...
- observer pays attention to model in order to learn from them
- Likely to be someone they look up to peers family members attractive high socuial status or desirable attribute.
- mental rehersal suggested by Bandura as a good way to remebr complicated behaivours
- retainded so can be immitated atlater point
- This is the cognitive element
- can mean that the behaivour isnt copied immeadiately but can emerge later...
3. MOTOR REPRODUCTION IMMITATION
- Behaviour is then performed reprodutioning actions that have been retained and observed
- All these actions can be refined by practice
- people with lower self esteem more likely toimmitate role model behaivour
- High levels of self efficacy are needed for the person to replicate it.
Social Learning Theory SLT part 2
- Whether or no the behaivour is continued depends on motivation.
- motivation may come from reinforcements
- more likely to copy if motivated by vicarious or delf- reinforcement
VICARIOUS REINFORCEMENT -
- If behaivour is PUNISHED it is LESS LIKELY to be REPEATED.
- If REWARDED it is MORE LIKELY to be REPEATED.
- NOT a direct form of REWARD or PUNISHMENT but an observation of how others are rewarded or punished by performing observed behaivour.
- OBSERVING a SUCCESSFUL criminal is therefore MORE LIKELY to be motivation rather than an UNSUCCESSFUL one
- VICARIOUS REINFORCEMENT is important for modelling as if no reinforcement liklehood of immitation lessens.
- we learn through models suces and mistakes e.g. watching someone succesfully stealing a car.
EXTERNAL REINFORCEMENT -
- once a behaivour has been aquired via SLT operant conditioning applies
- if behaivour is rewarded it will be repated. e,g, gaining wealt through robbery
INTERNAL REINFORCEMENT -
- Self motivational factors
- behaivour is more motivated if internal need such as exitement is catered for by performing observed behaivour. e.g.stealing a car sucessfully
Evaluation of Social Learning Theory SLT
The theory can appear to be redictionist in its explanation. the fact that criminal behaivour tends to run in families is not necascerily due to imitation but could be due to circimstances such as social deprivation or to genetic propensoty to behave in an anti-social way. For example looking at anumbe of stidies the average concordance rate is 55% for MZ twins and 17% foe DZ twins Bartol1999
Although Bandura identified cognitive factors of SLT , the theory underplays the role of cognition such as rationality. Yochelson 1884 found that compared to non-criminal, criminals have a distorted thinking pattern which resulted in various faulty processes including denial of responsibility.
Also like all learning theories SLT ignores the role of genetic or innate factors in behaivour it is more likely that innate factors interact with our experience to produce learning. For example we would need an innate device for us to be able to model and immitate in the first place.
SLT appears to offer a more complex explination that and complete one than both conditioning theories. it recognises that there is a short cut to learning rather than just learning through trail and error experience we can learn through observation. This seems a more realistic and efficient veiw of learning
SLT has proved useful in explaining the aquisition od behaivours, such as agression, through obseravtion. This has helped provide an understandidn of childrens behaivour and has been invaluable in informing the debate over media violence. The distinction between learning and performance can explainwhy children may appear to have spontaneously aquired a new behaivour. This i because they may have learned it and stored it until an appropriate time to perform the act.
Bandura, Ross and Ross 1961' imitation of aggressi
AIM - To see if children will immitate aggressive behaivour acts when given the oppurtunity even if they saw these in a different environment and the model is no longer present.
THE 4 HYPOTHESES
- p's exposed to agressive model would produce more immatative agressive acts than p's exposed to a non-agressive model and those not exposed to a model at all ( control grp)
- Exposing p's to a non-agressive model would have an inhibiting effect on their agressive behaivours and they would show signiicantly less agression than the control grp.
- assumed children had beeen reinforced into aproprate sex-role e,g, girls cooking being meternal. Children would be more likely ot copy the same sex model girls would copy women more and vice versa.
- Bandura et al expected boys to immitate more agressive acts than girls, especially with same sex models.
THERE WERE THREE GROUPS
72 children alltogetehr half boys half girls aged between 37 - 69 monts mean 52 months
The roll models were one female and male adult.
all children sub divided into subgroups of 6 each exposed to every possible condition e.g. boys exposed to a non-agressive female roll model. and 12 boys and girls 24 in total were the control group exposed to no roll model at all
- the condition the children were exposed to e.g. aggressive/ non-aggressive
- the genedr of the rol model
- the gender of the child
Bandura, Ross and Ross 1961' part 2
EXTRANEOUS VARIABLES - ( before the study)
Number of children 6 quite small results could be distorted if one grp contained say three normally aggressive children. e,g, if resaerchers found that boy grp exposed to male aggressive model were most aggressive this could of been the case as they were aggressive anyway!!!!
HOW DID THEY TRY TO RESOLVE THIS PROBLEM???
Pre- tested the p's for how agressive they were, by observing children in a nursery and judged their aggressivness byba 5 point rating scale and then similar p's were put in the same grps therefore regarded a matched pairs design.
INTER RATER RELIABILITY
51 of the children were rated by two observers seperatley and then compared their observations they showed a very high reliability correlation r = 89 which suggested that the observers had good agreement about the behaivour of the children.
- a table and chair in one corner with patatoe prints and a pic and stickers ( as children lik playing with them)
- The other cirner had a table with a tinker toy set and a 5 foot tall bobo doll
- loctaed in the main nursery school building ( familiar environment)
- child was escorted to childs table and encouraged to play with the patatoe prints and stickers
- The E the took model to other table and left
- Agressive roll model ( USING STANDARDISED SCRIPT) played with TT set but then turned to bobo doll and became agressive to it. these acts were clearly stylised so that imitation would be clear and not mistaken for how you usually play with the doll. The physically aggrresive acts were repeated 3 times in the ten mins of this stage ( the child stayed in the room)
Bandura, Ross and Ross 1961' 3
ROOM TWO -
- contained very attractive toys
- was designated to arouse agression in the p's
- All the children including control grp of 12 grls and 12 boys along with the other 8 groups pf 6 all under different conditions.
- they were allowed to play with the very attractive toys for 2 mins, were stopped by experimenter told them that they where her best toys and was saving them for others.
- she then told each child they could play with any of the toys in room 3 and then took them to room 3.
ROOM THREE -
- no longer in nursery environment
- observation room with one way mirror
- Contained toys and 5 foot bobo dol that were always placed in same position for evey one of the 72 p's (standardised procedure) reliable
- duration around 20 mins
- E went into room with child as they refused to go in on own because upset about room two so E worked discretely at other end of room
- the child was able to play with the toys for 20 mins and their behaivour was observed
- two observers observed the subjects every 5 seconds which gave 240 observations for each p
- the level of inter rater reliability was significant
Children were observed for the following categories of behaivour
THREE MEASURE OF DIRECT IMITATION
- imitation of aggressive acts
- imitation of aggrresive phrases
- imitation of non-aggressive phrases
TWO MEASURES OF INDIRECT IMITATION
- Hit other objects than the bobo doll
- subject lay bobo doll on side and sdat on it but wasnt aggressive
FOUR FURTHER TYPES OF AGGRESSIVE BEHAIVOUR this would tell the researchers whetehr agression of children was inhibited or increased by model
- striking, slappin, pushing doll aggressivley
- producing novel hostile remarks " cut him"
- shooting darts or aiming the gun and pretending to shoot.
Bandura, Ross and Ross 1961 RESULTS
ACCEPTING THE HYPOTHESIS
1.) the results do show that subjects exposed to an aggressive roll model would produce more imitative aggressive acts than the subjects who werent exposed to an aggressive roll model or none at all (cntrl grp)
2.) P'S exposed to the non- aggrresiv model would have an inhibiting effect on their aggressive behaivours and would show significantly less aggression than the control grp
the researchers observed no significatnt inhibiting effect but when the results are looked at by the sex of model the male non-aggrresive model had a significant inhibiting effect
3.) The sex of the model would have an effect children would be more liekly to copy the smae sex model
males show more aggression if the model was male as the imitative physical aggression with fem model was 12.4 however with male model it was 25.8 ( mean aggressive behaivours observed)
however girls also showed more PHYSICAL aggression when having a male model when they had male model it was 7.2 and fem 5.5 although when it came to VERBAL aggression the female model was more influential to the females fem model gave 13.7 and male 4.3
4.) boys would imitate more aggressive acts than girls with a same sex model
Boys did display more imatative physical acts than girls 25.8 compared to 12.4 of the girls' when exposed to the same sex roll model
However Girls displayed higher verbal imitative acts when they had a same sex model they displayed 13.7 compared to the boys which displayed 12.7
Bandura, Ross and Ross 1961 Conc.
Learning can take place by observation and is more effective when the roll model is of the same sex as the observer
Bandura also said that it may be possible to explain how learning took place by using Freuds identification theory