Law Murder points

Notes on key points for considering murder plus two defences. I generally use these for essay practise, ergo they are literally the bare minimum.

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Actus Reus of Murder

  • "Unlwaful killing of a reasonable creature in being under the Queen's peace"- Lord Justice Cooke (begining/end of life)
    • Not applicable to foetus (infanticide - Attorney-General's Refrence (No 3 of 1994))
    • Brain dead - (R V MALCHEREK)
  • Must be voluntary (R V MISS T, HILL V BAXTER)
  • Can be an omission if under one of four main exceptions
    •  (R V PITTWOOD) (R V GIBBONS & PROCTOR) (R V STONE & DOBINSON) (R V MILLER)
  • Factual causation
    • R V PAGGETT, R V WHITE
  • Legal causation
    • R V KIMSEY
  • Think skull principle
    • R V BLAUE
  • Novus Actus Intervins (3rd party, VOA, natural but unpredictable event)
    • Medical (R V SMITH, R V CHESHIRE, R V JORDAN)
    • Victims Own Actions (R V ROBERTS, R V WILLIAMS)
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Mens Rea of Murder (includ. Transferred Malice & c

  • "Malice aforethought, expressed or implied)
    • Expressed - intent to kill
    • Implied - intent as to cause GBH (R V VICKERS, R V CUNNINGHAM)
  • Foresight of consequences (Distinction between direct and oblique)
    • R V NEDRICK - "Is out come virtually certain AND did D forsee this?"
      • Confirmed in R V WOOLLIN (leading case now)
      • (older cases) R V MOLONEY, R V HANCOCK & SHANKLAND (used Moloney)
      • R V MATTHEWS AND ALLEYENE
  • Transferred malice (victim not the intended, R V LATIMER, R V MITCHELL)
  • Coincidence (AR & MR present at same time, THABO MELI V R)
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Defences - Diminished Responsability

  • Must satisfy three parts
    • Abnormality of mental function 
      • Sexual psychopath (R V BYRNE)
      • Depression (R V GITTENS)
      • PMS (R V ENGLISH)
    • Substantially impair the following:
      • Understand nature of conduct 
      • Ability to form rational judgement (R V AHLUWALIA)
      • Ability to exercise self control (R V BYRNE)
    • Provides explanation for D's conduct 
      • (CORONERS & JUSTICE ACT 2009)
  • Can't be immdeiate effects of drugs (R V DI DUCA) or alchohol (R V TANDY)
  • Can possibly be intoxication and a pre-existing abnormality
    • R V DIETSCHMANN
      • R V HENDY
      • R V ROBSON
  • Possibly due to addiction/dependancy
    • R V WOOD
  • Down to defendant to prove on balance of probs 
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Defences - Loss of Control

  • Replaces provocation (s 54 Coroners & Justice Act 2009)
  • Must consider:
    • Loss of control 
      • (R V AHLUWALIA)
    • Qualifying trigger 
      • (R V MARTIN, R V DAUGHTY)
    • Affect on self control 
      • (R V CAMPLIN, AG for JERSEY V HOLLEY)
    • Circumstances of D 
      • (R V GREGSON, R V HILL)
      • Reasonable man must've therefore reacted in same manner (R V DONGEN (under prov))
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