Language Theorists

  • Created by: FJWarren
  • Created on: 10-12-18 12:03

Cruttenden 1974 (Football Scores)

  • compared adults and children to see if they could predict football results based on the intonation of the newsreader
  • found that adults could successfully predit them, whereas children under 7 were less accurate and struggled with pridicting
  • this showed that understanding intonation develops as we age
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Noam Chomsky 1965

  • Nativist theory, suggesting we have an innate brain mechanism (pre-programmed) with the ability to aquire grammatical structures
    • LAD- Language Aquisition Device
  • Although human languages differ, we all share similarities
    • universal grammer
  • Support:
    • Children around the world develop at similar rates in similar stages
    • All aquire complex grammatical structures by early age, no matter environment/intelligence which supports innate LAD
      • acutal nature not pinpointed
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Decasper and Spence 1982

  • 33 pregnant women recited the same speech passage out loud each day during their last three weeks of pregnancy
  • 16 of the newborns were tested to determine whether sounds of the recited passage or a novel passage were more reinforcing
  • found the previously recited passage was more reinforcing
    • found 3rd trimester fetuses experienced mother's speech sounds and prenatal auditory experiences can influence postnatal auditory prefernece
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Bristol University 2008

  • Babies who were exposed to muliple languages at a young age, expereinced less phonemic contraction than those who were exposed to fewer languages.  
  • they were more able to pick out sounds of different langages as they got older, if they were exposed to different languages for the first 9 months of their life. 
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Petito and Holowka 2002

  • Found babbling mainly comes from the right hand side of the mouth, which is controlled by the left hand side of the brain.
  • They studied videod infancts and noticed this
  • the left hand side of the brain is also responsible for speech production 
  • findings suggest babbling is a form of preliminary speech
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Lennenberg 1967

  • Critical Period Hypothesis (CPH)
  • Children have certain amount of time to aquire language- between the age of 2 and 13
  • Genie Wiley: 
    • spent 13 years (entire childhood) locked in room, isolated and abused with no social interations - whenerv she made a noise, her father would beat her, her family rarely spoke to her and on the rare occasions her father spoke, it was to bark or growl.
    • Nationsl Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) sought out to help genie develop
    • her inability to use language meant she scored about the age of a 1 year old in mental abilites
    • made rapid progression in some areas but remained poor in language
    • could communicate non-verbally 
    • with help, she started to develop new vocabulary but never experienced "language explosion" (satge when children rapidly aquire new words)
    • however still unable to apply grammatical structures and use language in meaninful way
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Cruttenden 1979

3 stages of development:

1. children memorise words on individual basis

2. awarenes to rules of inflections form- observe past tense forms usually end in -ed, therefore overgeneralise the rule 

  • e.g. using "runned" instead of "ran"

3. correct inflections are used

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