Language Techniques

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Imperative (verb)

Command word

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Applying human characteristics to an object.

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Technical language/jargon

This is subject-specific lexis, used to demonstrate a high level of intelligence or knowledge. May be used to intentionally overwhelm reader or impress well-educated audience.

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This is where something is stated to be something else.

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Inclusive Pronouns

These, such as 'you' and 'we', link the reader and audience together. They create feelings of warmth and empathy and subtly coerce the reader into feeling they agree with the author's viewpoint or are at risk from the dangers the author points out.

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This is where something is stated to be "like" something else - a form of comparison.

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Spell this correctly if you are writing it in an exam! - This involves creating sounds such as 'creak'; 'slurp'; 'squelch', in which the words have a similar phonic

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This is where a group of words all begin with the same SOUND. E.g. an aspiring artist amalgamated all anchovies for aesthetics - amazing! This is effective in adding to a point. For higher marks (Band 3-4) consider the sounds, vowels/consonants and word lengths used - is it short or long? Are the sounds harsh or soft? What TONE is the author attempting to create?

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This is where certain vowel sounds are repeated. It is similar to alliteration. 

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This is a word which adds description or modifies a noun. They are capable of creating vivid imagery which the noun or pronoun on its own could not achieve.

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Excessive exaggeration to emphasize a point. Hyperbole can be used to accompany subversion of expectation, and frequently relates to the JUXTAPOSITION of two ideas.

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Rhetorical questions

Questions asked by a writer to their audience, that do not need to be answered - rather, they cause the reader to question a viewpoint or consider an idea they had not previously. This results in more conformation to the viewpoint. Use these SPARINGLY and appropriately in your writing - they can make the writing dull and degrading!

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Where a word or phrase is said more than once to emphasize a point. It is vital in order to advance a particular point-of-view but can be seen as hollow and irritable if used excessively.

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Word plays/pun

This involves humor being created due to the linguistics of English. This again creates a light-hearted tone, may hook a reader into an article, subvert our expectations, or mock or make sarcasm of a person or scenario.

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Rule of three

Do not over-analyses as there is very little to say about this use of language. It simply adds to the strength created by a point.

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Emotive/figurative language/senses

This is a key area to analyses - where description, similes and metaphors combine to produce a very engaging piece of writing. It is added to by the five senses. Analysing the CONNOTATIONS of particular words in achieving an effect will accrue the highest marks.

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